カール・ポランニーと社会政策の思想的次元(<特集>社会改革思想と現代-社会政策の思想的基盤を問う)  [in Japanese] Karl Polanyi and Ideas on Social Reform Re-examined : Controversial Basis of the Market Society(<Special Issue>Social Reform Ideology and the Present Age: Questioning the Intellectual Foundations of Social Policies)  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

20世紀の危機の時代を生きた経済学者,ポランニー,ケインズ,ペヴァリッジ,ラーナー,ミーゼス,ノイラート,ハイエク,ロビンズらにとって,大恐慌やファシズムや世界戦争といった自由主義の危機と資本主義システムの持つ悪弊(通貨の不安定化,緊縮財政,増大する格差,大量失業,不安定な就労形態)の諸問題に正面から向き合う課題は,共通していた。これらの点を踏まえて本稿では,20世紀が経験した平和と自由と民主主義の危機の解釈をめぐって争点となる,ポランニーの「社会的保護」の考え方を明らかにする。そして,市場社会における制約された社会的保護とその可能性に照明を当てることによって,二重運動の思想的次元を問う。最後に1920年代の社会民主党市政下のウィーンに思想的起源があるポランニーの「社会的自由」の概念に立ち返りつつ,『大転換』最終章「複雑な社会における自由」の諸論点を検討し,「福祉国家と自由」の問題圏を考察する。

In The Great Transformation, of which the first edition was published in 1944, Polanyi shows his interpretation of the political and economic cataclysm in early twentieth century Europe, when there occurred great crises and upheaval of the nineteenth century market society: the Great Depression, severe unemploymerit problems, financial instability, crisis of democracy, economic nationalism, fascism, and great wars. Polanyi has important insights to understand the very context of the rise and fall of the Welfare State. He suggests that we can see the very essential debates upon the Welfare States in inter-war Vienna. And according to him, the debates between Mises and Hayek vs. Neurath and Polanyi were brought into English speaking-world in the 1930s, and have been repeated after the Second World War. Certainly the obvious consequences of neoliberal policies since the 1970s - when Ronald Regan in the United States and Margaret Thatcher in the UK launched a systematic attack on the legacy of Keynes=Beveridge Welfare State - are increasing market instabilities reminiscent of the 1930s, as well as a growing loss of democratic control. One of his theses is that during economic crises, economic liberalism requires "social reform" for the market. Free-market liberalism promotes various projects of "planning for a competitive market system" for creating an environment in which private interests can flourish. In case of "emergency", it can become openly anti-democratic in defense of the market and can encourage a strong state authority that has the capacity to resist "spontaneous" social protection movements in the product, labor, and financial markets. According to Polanyi, completely unfettered markets lacking social control were destructive of the livelihood of common people with narrowing freedoms for social reactions that sought to intervene in the market system to achieve the general interests of the community.

Journal

  • Social Policy and Labor Studies

    Social Policy and Labor Studies 6(3), 29-45, 2015

    Japan Association for Social Policy Studies

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009964129
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1883-1850
  • Data Source
    NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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