グローバル社会の革命の英雄像 : オアハカのストリートアーティストによるナショナル・ヒストリーの読み替え  [in Japanese] Images of Revolutionary Heroes in Global Society : Translation of National History by Street Artists in Oaxaca  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

Abstract

This article examines the practice of a street artist collective known as ASARO (Asamblea de Artistas Revolucionarios de Oaxaca). In 2006, a popular uprising occurred against the oppression of the state governor of Oaxaca, Mexico. At that time, several art school students got together and tried to participate in the movement using their art skills. That is how ASARO emerged. They painted illustrations and slogans on the walls of the buildings in Oaxaca City. The main symbols they used to motivate the people were portraits of Mexican revolutionary heroes and indigenous people, invoking various subcultures, including punk and the Mexican-American cholo culture. It is commonly known that the Mexican Revolution served as the foundation of the PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) authoritarian regime. The PRI integrated the revolutionary heroes and nameless indigenous soldiers into Mexican national history as "national heroes." So in that sense, making artworks with the motif of the Mexican Revolution means an affirmation of the PRI regime. However, needless to say, ASARO does not intend to make drawings of the heroes and indigenous peoples for that purpose, but to criticize the regime's injustice. For example, it depicts Emiliano Zapata with a Mohawk haircut and a can of Coca Cola with the word "revolution" on it. In Mexican history, Zapata is known for his struggle for indigenous people's rights, and he died a martyr. On the contrary, ASARO's Zapata, according to the author, criticizes capitalism and neo-liberalism using pop art. The artists of ASARO also created an artwork inspired by Leonardo da Vinci's masterpiece "The Last Supper." In that work, they drew the head of Benito Juarez placed on a dish, with a gunshot mark on his forehead. In the same painting, the head of Lopez Obrador (the leader of the left-wing political party PRD) lies on a dish on the floor. That artwork poignantly critiques those in power who "killed" the ideals of both Juarez and Obrador. Since the PRI regime has not realized the ideals that people dreamed of during the revolution, ASARO does not consider that the Mexican Revolution has been truly achieved yet. That is why they need to summon revolutionary heroes and native people in the present day. However, as Frantz Fanon (1996) pointed out, even if folk art is strong, it will lose its creativity gradually if overused, eventually becoming conservative. Therefore, ASARO's imagery references subcultural icons familiar to the youth so as to reinvigorate the images of revolutionary heroes and indigenous peoples. In that sense, ASARO's imagery reflects a different "story" than the traditional history constructed by the PRI regime.

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology

    Japanese Journal of Cultural Anthropology 80(1), 71-82, 2015

    Japanese Society of Cultural Anthropology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110009975216
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11958949
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    1349-0648
  • NDL Article ID
    026608570
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-240
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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