イギリスの国立公園におけるアクセスおよび保全の変遷 : 5つの政策の検討を通して Changing Access and Conservation Mechanisms in the National Parks of England and Wales : A Review of Five Policy Milestones
The national parks of England and Wales seek to provide public access and conservation concurrently despite being largely composed of 'protected landscapes' that consist largely of private land situated in upland areas. This paper employs secondary sources to review evolving access and conservation mechanisms in the parks through five pivotal policies driven by changes in visitor demand. Despite pre-war conflict, such as at Kinder Scout in 1932, conservationists' alliance with the access movement in the aftermath of WWII facilitated the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (NPAC, 1945). However, a right to roam' across upland and uncultivated areas was not granted, while conservation was undermined by institutional divisions. An administrative framework emerged gradually via the Countryside (1968); Wildlife and Countryside (1981); and Environment (1995) Acts, before the Countryside and Public Rights of Way Act (2000) did eventually extend access across upland areas, albeit with numerous caveats. Aside from national park administration, the twin mechanisms of access and conservation have also been shaped by the diversification of visitor demand, as epitomised by the ongoing debate over 'quiet enjoyment.' This paper thus offers a holistic, retrospective baseline for research into the future policy direction of upland areas which remains unresolved.
林業経済研究 61(3), 1-11, 2015