唐武宗期における劉稹の乱と藩鎮体制の変容  [in Japanese] The changing face of civil unrest and the <i>fanzhen </i> garrison system during the reign of Tang Emperor Wuzong in China  [in Japanese]

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従来「唐宋変革」期として注目を集めてきた唐代中国史であるが、近年はその変動を中華世界のみならず、東部ユーラシア全体の中で考察しようとする潮流が生じている。本稿ではこの関連性を実証的に考察すべく、九世紀半ばに昭義節度使において生じた、劉稹の乱という藩鎮反乱に注目した。この反乱は従来、藩鎮反乱の「例外」とする見方が強かったが、藩帥側近集団の分析により、安史の乱以来の藩鎮反乱の系譜に位置づけることができる。また、朝廷が劉稹の乱討伐を敢行できたのは、当時唐朝北辺に出現していた遊牧帝国ウイグルの、遺民集団の敗走を背景とした。さらに朝廷は、劉稹軍と気脈を通じていた河朔三鎮との離間策のため、河朔三鎮と世襲に関する取引を実施し、その脅威を除いた。ところが乱終息後の大規模な軍縮によって、却って河南を中心に余剰兵力が放出され、盗賊・密売、あるいは反乱などの動揺が生じたのである。<br> 以上の経緯を踏まえれば、劉稹の乱や河朔三鎮対策、さらに河南の情勢不安といった事象が、唐の国内問題に留まらず、内陸世界の動向と段階に関連していたことが判明する。すなわち安史の乱以来、唐朝は北辺防衛のみならず対河朔三鎮のため、内地にまで膨大な軍事力を抱え込んできた。しかし武宗期、北辺でウイグルが崩壊したので、朝廷は北辺防衛の軍事力を内地の藩鎮反乱討伐に割いた。さらにこの藩鎮反乱の中で唐朝廷は、河朔三鎮の安静化をも実現した。こうして、唐朝の軍事的脅威は内外ともほぼ同時に消滅した。そこで朝廷は、一見不用となった内地藩鎮の軍事力縮小に乗り出した。その結果、行き場を失った多くの兵員は、国内の不穏分子へと変貌してしまった。劉稹の乱は、草原の遊牧帝国崩壊の余波が、唐朝北辺から太行山脈を越えて河北へと次第に波及し、河南の混乱の遠因となった、九世紀半ばの情勢変化を象徴する出来事だったといえる。

The study of the history of Tang China which focuses on the transition from the Tang to the Song Dynasty has recently broadened its purview from the Han Chinese world proper to the whole region spanning eastern Eurasia. In the present article the author focuses on the mid-ninth century civil disturbances occurring among the governors ( <i>jiedushi </i> 節度使) of <i>fanzen</i> 藩鎮 regional garrisons and their relationship to the Dynastic transition, taking up the concrete example of the rebellion of Liu Zhen 劉稹, the governor of Zhao-Yi 昭義 in Eastern Shanxi Province. <br>Despite the overwhelming opinion that the rebellion represents an " exception " in the <i>fanzen</i> civil disturbances, the author's analysis of Liu Zhen's close advisors shows that the incident should be directly understood as an element of <i>fanzen</i> civil unrest as it developed after the An Lushan 安禄山 Rebellion (755-63). Moreover, the fact that the imperial court took on the task of quelling Liu's rebellion reflects the defeat of the remnants of the Uighur nomadic empire that had risen during that time on the Tang Dynasty's northern periphery. Also, through its divide and conquer tactic of appealing to common interests it shared with Liu's army, the court was able to avoid one threat by negotiating over succession to the three garrisons of Hebei. However, due to the large demilitarization of the region after the rebellion, a huge outflow of surplus military personnel into Henan took place, resulting in region becoming racked with brigandage, smuggling and outright rebellion. Given the situation described above, the author concludes that the rebellion of Liu Zhen and China's policy regarding the three garrisons north of the Huanghe, as well as the instability characterizing Henan were for the Tang Dynasty problems not exclusively "domestic" in nature, but rather linked to what was going in the hinterlands of Inner Asia. That is to say, from the An Lushan Rebellion on, in addition to need to defend its northern borders, the Tang Dynasty had to amass a huge military campaign into the hinterlands for the defense of the northern three garrisons. Then during the reign of Emperor Wuzong, with the destruction of the Uighur Empire, the court deployed its northern defense forces to quell the <i>fanzhen</i> rebellions raging in the interior. Via such efforts, the court was also able to secure the northern three garrisons, thus almost simultaneously eliminating any military threat to the Middle Kingdom. This is why the court then embarked on the demilitarization of the remote hinterland <i>fanzhen</i>, which were now deemed unnecessary. Consequently, the demobilized troops having no place to settle turned into a domestic source of civil unrest. <br>The rebellion of Liu Zhen was therefore an event which symbolizes the changing situation of the mid-ninth century, in which reverberations caused by the destruction of the nomadic empire of the steppe rumbled through the Taihang Mountains into Hebei, and eventually became an indirect source of civil unrest in Henan.



    SHIGAKU ZASSHI 124(6), 1077-1113, 2015

    The Historical Society of Japan


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