木曽駒ケ岳の哺乳動物に関する研究-2-木曽駒ケ岳東斜面低山帯上部におけるホンドテンの秋季ならびに冬季の食性--特に糞の内容の分析を中心として Studies on Mammals of the Mt. Kiso-Komagatake, Central Japan Alps. II. Food habit of the Japanese Marten in Autumn and Winter in Upper Part of Low Mountainous Zone on Eastern Slope of the Kiso-Komagatake, with Special Reference to the Scat Analysis.
The distribution of small mammals on the eastern slope of the Mt. Kiso-Komagatake, the peak of the Japanese Central Alps was described in the previous report (Suzuki, Miyao et al, 1975). In the present paper, the authors made clear the food habit of the Japanese martens (Martes melampus melampus) in the upper part of low mountainous zone (1,200-1,600m above the sea level) on the eastern slope of the Mt. Kiso-Komagatake. From late August 1975 to late February 1976, total 193 scat samples were collected in the area and their content were analyzed. As to the flora in the area, afforestation of Larix kaempferi is predominating, and secondary forests containing Quercus crispura, Betula platyphylla, Fagus crenata, Cercidiphyllum japonicum and Tsuga diversifolia are scattered here and there. The results of scat analysis are as follows; 1) Scats containing both animal and vegetable foods were predominant, indicating the omnivorous habit of the Japanese marten. Those exclusively containing animal foods increased in winter (January to February), thus suggesting their stronger tendency towards flesh-eating in the cold season. 2) Kinds of animals eaten by the Japanese marten covered seven classes, and among them insects and small mammals were mainly eaten. Mammals eaten with the highest predilection were Lepus brachyurus and murinae rodents, and especially the former may become the basal animal foods for the Japanese marten. Insectivora in scats were found more frequently in winter. A mass of hairs ofthe Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus crispus) was found in one scat. In insects, Coleoptera was frequently eaten but they entirely disappear in winter season. 3) As to the vegetable foods, buccas and drupes from plants of seven orders of class Dicotyledoneae were found and buccas from Actinidia arguta and A. holomikta of order Parietales were mainly eaten. Scats contained 85-99% of fruits collected from August to December, however, its percentage decreased and the frequency of the small mammals increased in winter season (January to February). Besides Parietales, buccas and drupes of Akebia quinata, Rubus, Vitis coignetiae, Viburunum furcatum, Diospyros kaki, Aralis cordata A. elata were also eaten. 4) The mean number of different order of foods found in one scat was 2.5 for the total period of investigation, 2.8 for August to September, 2.2 for October to December and 2.1 for January to February. In August to September, buccas of Actinidia arguta, A. holomikta and Akebia quinata were more frequently eaten in combination with Lepus brachyurus. In January to February, Lepus brachyurus was the major food. 5) It arouses great interest to know what difference may exist in the food selection among the Japanese marten, Martes melampus melampus, the Japanese red fox, Vulpes vulpes japonica and the Japanese weasel, Mustela itatsi itatsi, which live sympatrically in the same area. This problem will be studied in the near future.
信州大学農学部紀要 13(1), p21-42, 1976-06