大正期・昭和戦前期における学校林の変容  [in Japanese] Change of School Forests in the Taisho and the Showa Prewar Period  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

明治期において小学校という契機により自然村=村落共同体が行政村内部に新たな共同関係を築き上げ、そこに物的基礎、すなわち学校林を集中させたが、問題は、そうして設置された学校林が現存しているという事実であり、したがって、この明治期に形成された共同関係がいったいどのようにして現在に至るまで持続されてきたのかを明らかにしなければならない。本稿では、大正期・昭和戦前期において、中央政府による学校林の位置づけが変化していくなかで、自然村と行政村の二重構造下に形成される、学校林設置、管理を担う共同関係の変容を説明することが研究の目的となる。その際に、1)包括的-個別的、2)自生的-官製的、という2軸から分類される共同関係が担う自治的機能と行政的機能の対立、融合を分析の枠組みとした。時期区分については、第1期:大正デモクラシー期、第2期:昭和恐慌期、第3期:国家総動員体制期という通説的な区分を用いて論じることにした。

In the Meiji period (1868-1912), natural villages built up new communal relations to manage their primary schools. Sometimes, they set up forested trust lands for their schools. These were called school forests. Some school forests were managed by these regional communities. In this paper the reasons for and methods of maintaining these school forests are examined. This paper explains the functional and systematic changes in the communal relations in the dual structure of natural villages and administrative villages from the Taisho period (1912-1926) to the Showa prewar period (1926-). This dual structure was the result of the local authority system in the Meiji period.The communal relations established school forests as a self-governing function when the modern education system was introduced. Until the commemorative forestation for the Taisho Imperial accession, school forests were established for the purpose of forestation and generating school funds. From the middle of the Taisho period, however, school forests became relatively unimportant.Under the national mobilization system, which was started in 1938 and was designed to strengthen the Imperial system, central government found school forestation to be a useful tool. The young men's associations, which were set up as self-governing organizations, were promoted as administration-governed organizations and the government regarded school forests as national resources.To change such communal relations, there was the so-called "Hometown patriotism", which converted the spirit of loving one's hometown into patriotism.

Journal

  • Bulletin of the Tokyo University Forests

    Bulletin of the Tokyo University Forests (114), 43-113, 2005-12

    東京大学大学院農学生命科学研究科附属演習林

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120001092978
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00162451
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    03716007
  • NDL Article ID
    7926125
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZR21(科学技術--農林水産--林産)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-548
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NDL  IR  JASI 
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