モンゴル国フンフレー遺跡群の調査とその意義--元代「孔古烈倉」の基礎的研究  [in Japanese] A survey of Khunkhuree sites in Mongolia and their significance: a basic study on the "Konggulie granary" of the Yuan dynasty  [in Japanese]

Access this Article

Search this Article

Abstract

モンゴル高原は,そのすべてが遊牧に適した水や草の豊かな地帯ではない。険しい山地や乾燥地が広範囲にみられ,その中に遊牧可能な小地域がパッチ状に点在しているのが実像である。モンゴル高原に成立した歴代の遊牧国家の版図は,一見すると広大だが,じつはこのような小地域の集合体と考えた方がよかろう。遊牧だけでなく,農耕や手工業も,このような限られた生活空間でおこなわれていた。一つ一つの小地域が自立あるいは他地域の欠落点を補完しながら,有機的に結合することによって,遊牧国家の領域が成り立っていたと考える。そうであるならば,それぞれの小地域内の自然環境や生産力,歴史的変遷などを知ることで,遊牧国家の興亡の背景の一端が明らかになるはずだ。 このような視点に立って筆者らは,モンゴル国ウブルハンガイ県フンフレー地区で調査をおこなった。そこはゴビ地帯にあるオアシスで,13 ~ 14 世紀の遺跡があり,文献史料にも登場する。考古学,歴史学,地理学などが協力して学際的にアプローチできる,格好の地域といえる。 その結果,この地域はモンゴル帝国時代には「孔古烈」とよばれ,豊富な湧水を利用して,モンゴル高原の中心地カラコルムへ食糧を供給した農耕地帯であったことがわかった。あわせて,この地はゴビ砂漠の南北縦断路と,アルタイ山脈北麓を通るモンゴル高原の東西横断路の交点で,交通の要衝であるとともに,軍事的攻防の舞台であった。これらのことから,今後モンゴル帝国の興亡史を研究する上で重要な地域になると指摘した。Not all areas of the Mongol plateau are rich in water and grass, vital fornomads. Steep mountainous regions and arid terrain stretching for miles aredotted with small parcels of land where nomads can survive. The territory ofthe successive generations of nomadic states which established themselveson the Mongol plateau may appear vast at first glance, but it should reallybe considered as a collection of these small parcels. Not only nomadism, butalso farming and cottage industries were carried on in these restricted livingspaces. Probably the nomadic states were formed by organic bonding amongsmall areas as individual parcels became self-reliant or could provide whatanother parcel lacked. If this is the case, then by analyzing aspects such as thenatural environment, productive strength and historical transformation withineach individual parcel, we should be able to throw light on the background tothe rise and fall of the nomadic states.From this perspective, the authors investigated the Khünkhüree districtin Mongolia's Övörkhangai Prefecture. In an oasis in the Gobi region, thereare remains from the 13th–14th centuries which are also mentioned in writtenrecords. This area is well-suited to an interdisciplinary approach by archaeology,historical study and geography.As a result, we discovered that the area was called Konggulie duringthe period of the Mongol empire and was a farming area, utilizing abundantunderground water, which supplied provisions to Kharakhorum in the centerof the Mongol plateau. The area lay at the crossroads between the route whichcut through the Gobi desert from north to south and the route which ran eastwestacross the Mongol plateau past the northern foothills of the Altai mountainrange. We show that as well as being a strategic point for traffic, the fact thatit was a stage for military attack and defense makes it an important area forfuture research into the history of the rise and fall of the Mongol empire.

Journal

  • Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology.

    Bulletin of the National Museum of Ethnology. 33(4), 599-638, 2009

    National Museum of Ethnology

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120001895707
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00091943
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • ISSN
    0385180X
  • NDL Article ID
    10306499
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-1298
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR 
Page Top