近代ドイツのカトリック社会運動の歴史的前提(1803-1848年) Historical conditions for the beginning of Catholic social movements in Germany, 1803-1848
The process of industrialization that startedin mid-19th century Germany gave rise to seriousissues known as "the social problem." Social thoughts in the 19th and 20th centuries, and thevarious groups behind them, came into conflictover how this social problem ought to be comprehended and resolved, and moreover howsocioeconomic order ought to be restored. One such group was based on Catholic social thought and movement known as "social Catholicism."Through efforts to resolve the social problem, the group contributed largely to the formation of Sozialstaat, the present welfare state of Germany The objective of this thesis is to shed light onthe historical conditions that led to the start ofCatholic Social Movements in Germany.One French philosopher, F. de Lamennais, laid the theoretical groundwork for the Catholic Social Movements in Germany. The Catholic emancipation of Ireland in the 1820s and the independence of Belgium in 1830 set precedents for the movements.Traditional German society was unstable with Enlightenment thought, with the French Revolution, and with the secularization of 1803. Catholic associations took advantage of this situation to rouse a new awareness of religion and develop a social movement. The forerunner of these associations, Joseph Görres, instilled a sense of crisis in German Catholic followers particularly amid the turmoil in Cologne(Kölner Wirren) in 1837, and created a starting point for Catholic unity. Catholic SocialMovements thereafter unfolded unique thoughts and practices while confronting both the absolutist state and liberalism. And with the Revolution of 1848, Catholic Social Movements came to be established as a mass movement.
彦根論叢 (386), 18-29, 2010