貧困層のリスクプーリングと社会的ネットワークおよびArisanの役割--中部ジャワ農村における事例 [in Japanese] Roles of social network and Arisan for risk-pooling by the poor: a case study in rural central Java [in Japanese]
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The"security of harvesting" and the "security of food consumption" provided by maize and "femaleproducts"( bananas，milk，and beans) have so far been pursued through the farming of food products at the Lukani Village situated on the westem slope of the Mt. Kilimanjaro in Tanzania In addition to the traditional security system of farm household economy in regard to food consumption，t he villagers have recently started to try to gain the security system in regard to income through diversification of commercial products (" male products" such as coffee and maize). They are making efforts to secure a minimum income mainly for education and health expenditure by means of diversified farming to cope with sharp fluctuations in yield amount and price (production and market risk) Cattle has not yet been discussed even though it is the second most important"male product" after coffee. It is， however， interesting that milk is regarded as a "female product." The body (beet) of a cow and the milk it produces play different roles. This means that cattle can contribute not only to the security as regards food consumption，but also the security in terms of income (diversification of commercial products). This paper is mostly intended to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of milk/ cattle sales and ways of coping with the risks of the farm household economy，taking particular note of the roles (management objectives) of milk as a "female product" and calf/cow as"male products." The last intention here is to place the reduction of management costs， self-employed women' s work in cattle feeding，and the varied objectives of the management structure， as meaningful ways of coping with the risks of the farm household economy.
- The natural resource economic review
The natural resource economic review (16), 75-93, 2011