中国における貧困,失業および所得格差の要因分析 [in Japanese] Factor analysis on poverty, unemployment and income disparity in China [in Japanese]
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This paper studies the issues of poverty, urban unemployment and income inequality in China using the newest official statistics and CHIP (China Household Income Project) data of 1988 1995 and 2002. We found that though poverty rate has been reduced greatly in rural area since 198O's, it is still at a high level if it is measured by the World Bank standard. Meanwhile, urban poverty is becoming a serious problem and need pay more attention to; in urban China, as market economy is going on, unemployment rate is rising and young unemployment is becoming a new phenomenon; about income distribution, calculated by CHIP data we found that the Gini coefficient has been rising from 0.382 in 1988 to 0.454 in 2002 (and 0.478 in 2008). Inquiring the factors causing income disparity in urban China, we had found that education plays both roles of increasing income and inequality. By Mincer equation and G.Fields decomposition, we found that education endowment, measured by schooling years, has plus contribution to income growth but minus contribution to gender and regional income distribution. Our conclusion is that the factors causing poverty, unemployment and income disparity in China can be explained both by policy reason and market reason. However, as market economy is developing rapidly in China and China is integrating herself into the world, the market factor will become main factors inducing these problems.
- The Economic science
The Economic science 58(2), 17-35, 2010-09