Prognostic factors in glioblastoma multiforme patients receiving high-dose particle radiotherapy or conventional radiotherapy




The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of prognostic factors related to patient selection on survival outcomes. Survival outcomes were retrospectively analysed in a consecutive series of 67 newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who had received either conventional fractionated photon radiotherapy (CRT) or high-dose particle radiotherapy (HDT). In the CRT protocol, a total dose of 60.0–61.2 Gy was administered. In the HDT protocol, an average dose of approximately 30 GyE in a single session and additional fractionated photon irradiation of total dose 30 Gy were administered to patients receiving boron neutron capture therapy; and a total dose of 96.6 GyE was administered to patients receiving proton therapy. Most of the patients had received chemotherapy with nimustine hydrochloride (ACNU) alone or with ACNU, procarbazine and vincristine. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival times for all patients were 17.7 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 14.6–20.9 months] and 7.8 months (95% CI, 5.7–9.9 months), respectively. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 67.2% and 33.7%, respectively. For patients treated with HDT, the median OS was 24.4 months (95% CI, 18.2–30.5 months), compared with 14.2 months (95% CI, 10.0–18.3 months) for those treated with CRT. The Cox proportional hazards model revealed radiation modality (HDT vs CRT) and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer recursive partitioning analysis class to be the significant prognostic factors. Age, sex, pre-operative performance status, treatment with or without advanced neuroimaging, extent of surgery and regimen of chemotherapy were not statistically significant factors in predicting prognosis. The median OS was 18.5 months (95% CI, 9.9–27.1 months) in patients of 65 years and older, compared with 16.8 months (95% CI, 13.6–20.1 months) in those 64 years and younger (p=0.871). The positive effect of HDT treatment is unlikely to reflect patient selection alone. Randomised trials with strictly controlled inclusion criteria to ensure the comparable selection of patients are required to demonstrate conclusively that prolonged survival can be attributed to high-dose particle radiotherapies.


  • British journal of radiology

    British journal of radiology 84(Special Issue 1), S54-S60, 2011-12

    British Institute of Radiology



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