<特集論文>対テロ戦争によるパキスタンにおける社会変容  [in Japanese] Social Transformation in Pakistan in the War on Terrorism  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

小文は、対テロ戦争以降のパキスタンにおける社会構造や急進派組織の変容について、特に連邦直轄部族地域のターリバーンやパキスタン国内の急進派組織を中心に考察する。部族地域では、対ソ連戦争時に流入した兵士が伝統的な氏族長による合議制に対して異議を唱えるようになり、部族の社会構造に変容がもたらされた。小文では、対ソ連戦争時から現代に至るまでの歴史的経緯や思想的背景を考察する。また、カシュミールを中心に結成されたムスリム急進派は、結成当初「愛国心」でパキスタン政府や軍と一定の親和性を持っていたものの、対テロ戦争後の軍による掃討作戦が、軍と急進派の間に亀裂を生み、急進派による攻撃の対象が軍や警察施設への攻撃と変わっていったことを指摘する。これらの問題の解決は容易ではないが、これらの歴史的背景を把握し、長期的な視野での問題解決に向けた国際社会の支援が必要であろう。

This paper aims to study the social transformation in the tribal area of Pakistan and the change in the relationship between Muslim radicalism and the Pakistan government. It is commonly known that the ethnic majority of the Taliban is Pashtun. Most of the Taliban soldiers, who joined voluntarily, were once Afghani refugees belonging to the madrasas, mostly located in the tribal area of Pakistan. During the anti-Soviet war in Afghanistan, those soldiers were treated as guests by the local traditional society where the traditional tribal code of life (Pashtunwali) has been in effect. However, some of the mullas and madrasa students opposed the traditional leadership. The authority of the tribal leaders in the tribal area has been challenged by the mullas and the students of the newly-established madrasas. Firstly, the students are not necessarily Pashtun, and they neglect the Pashtun tribal code and seniority system. Secondly, the students challenge the tribal people's understanding of the coexistence of Islam and the tribal code by introducing politicized Islam. Along with the emergence of radicalism in the tribal area, many radical groups were also established in Kashmir in the name of jihad or holy war. Most of them were not only supported by the Pakistani army but also the international community, which kept silent about this support because of the priority placed on jihad during the anti-Soviet war. At that time the Pakistani army and radical groups had a similarity in the context of patriotism. However, after the 9.11 attack in 2001, when the Pakistani government began to terminate radical groups in the name of the war on terrorism, radicalism changed its target and began to oppose pro-USA Pakistani authority. Such a complicated situation in Pakistan may not be resolved in the short term but this paper tries to give suggestions to improve the situation.

Journal

  • 現代インド研究

    現代インド研究 (2), 35-57, 2012-01

    人間文化研究機構地域研究推進事業「現代インド地域研究」

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120005122144
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA12520400
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • ISSN
    2185-9833
  • Data Source
    IR 
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