<特集論文>対テロ戦争によるパキスタンにおける社会変容 [in Japanese] Social Transformation in Pakistan in the War on Terrorism [in Japanese]
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This paper aims to study the social transformation in the tribal area of Pakistan and the change in the relationship between Muslim radicalism and the Pakistan government. It is commonly known that the ethnic majority of the Taliban is Pashtun. Most of the Taliban soldiers, who joined voluntarily, were once Afghani refugees belonging to the madrasas, mostly located in the tribal area of Pakistan. During the anti-Soviet war in Afghanistan, those soldiers were treated as guests by the local traditional society where the traditional tribal code of life (Pashtunwali) has been in effect. However, some of the mullas and madrasa students opposed the traditional leadership. The authority of the tribal leaders in the tribal area has been challenged by the mullas and the students of the newly-established madrasas. Firstly, the students are not necessarily Pashtun, and they neglect the Pashtun tribal code and seniority system. Secondly, the students challenge the tribal people's understanding of the coexistence of Islam and the tribal code by introducing politicized Islam. Along with the emergence of radicalism in the tribal area, many radical groups were also established in Kashmir in the name of jihad or holy war. Most of them were not only supported by the Pakistani army but also the international community, which kept silent about this support because of the priority placed on jihad during the anti-Soviet war. At that time the Pakistani army and radical groups had a similarity in the context of patriotism. However, after the 9.11 attack in 2001, when the Pakistani government began to terminate radical groups in the name of the war on terrorism, radicalism changed its target and began to oppose pro-USA Pakistani authority. Such a complicated situation in Pakistan may not be resolved in the short term but this paper tries to give suggestions to improve the situation.
現代インド研究 (2), 35-57, 2012-01