Regulated expression and neural functions of human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate.
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Human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate, comprising a unique trisaccharide HSO(3)-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc, shows well-regulated expression and unique functions in the nervous system. Recent studies have revealed sophisticated and complicated expression mechanisms for HNK-1 glycan. Activities of biosynthetic enzymes are controlled through the formation of enzyme-complexes and regulation of subcellular localization. Functional aspects of HNK-1 carbohydrate were examined by overexpression, knockdown, and knockout studies of these enzymes. HNK-1 is involved in several neural functions such as synaptic plasticity, learning and memory, and the underlying molecular mechanisms have been illustrated upon identification of the target carrier glycoproteins of HNK-1 such as the glutamate receptor subunit GluA2 or tenascin-R. In this review, we describe recent findings about HNK-1 carbohydrate that provide further insights into the mechanism of its expression and function in the nervous system.
- Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS 69(24), 4135-4147, 2012-12
SP Birkhäuser Verlag Basel