ヨーガの実践とペルシア語訳『ゴーラクシャシャタカ』 Persian Translations of the Goraksasataka
A number of Sanskrit works are attributed to Gorakṣanātha. Among them, the Gorakṣaśataka is considered as one of the authoritative texts that contain Nātha doctrines. With regard to the transmission of the Gorakṣaśataka, we have located some remarks on the number of verses and variety of manuscripts. Despite the varied number of verses in the text, only two versions have been found to have been published with different titles. One version has 101 verses as its name śataka indicates, and another version contains over 200 verses. The latter is the more prevalent text. Recently, another short version has been introduced as the original śataka. We can add two Persian manuscripts which contain the Gorakṣaśataka in the form of a conversat ion between Matsyendranātha and Gorakṣanātha. One is the Retention of Breath (Pās-i Anfās) and another is the Translation of Gorakh (Tarjumah-i Gorakh). Despite the different titles, different translation styles, omissions, and additions, they are supposed to have been based on almost identical texts or oral tradition that contain the same number of verses as the longer version. Thus far, the examination of Persian translations has clarified that the source text may have been some kind of compendium of Nātha doctrines. It may have been the Vivekamārtāṇḍa ascribed to Viśvarūpadeva, which fixes the longer version of the Gorakṣaśataka in the core and contains the part of the Śivasvarodaya. The introductory part of this book has common verses in the first chapter of the Haṭhapradīpikā with ten chapters. Since the date of the transmission of the Cistern of Life (Amṛtakuṇḍa) in the 13th century, the science of the breath (svarajñāna) has been prevailed among the Islamic intellectuals and the Sufi circles. They left indispensable materials for the study of the formation of Nātha literatures.
東洋文化研究所紀要 163, 108-80, 2013-03