韓国における早期留学の変遷 : 統計分析による各政権期の特徴 [in Japanese] A Study on the Transition of South Korean Pre-College Study Abroad : The Characteristics of 4 Government Periods seen through the Statistical Analysis [in Japanese]
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In South Korea, a phenomenon called `Jogi-yuhak (pre-college study abroad, hereafter PSA)', junior/ senior high school students studying abroad, has spread even to elementary school children, and become a social problem. The aim of this paper is to grasp generally how the pre-college study abroad phenomenon in South Korea changed from the mid-1990s to today through the analysis of the statistical data surveyed by Korean Educational Development Institute. I examined the characteristics of the PSA phenomenon in each government period. The results are as follows. In the first period (the Kim Young-sam administration period) when the `Segyehwa (Total Globalization Policy)' became a state policy and PSA boom began, PSA phenomenon expanded from the limited wealth to the middle class. The number of PSA students, however, was still around 3,600 at most a year and most of the PSA students were junior or senior high school students. At the beginning of the second period (the Kim Dae-jung administration period), the number of PSA students greatly decreased under the influence of the currency crisis. But it rapidly increased after 2000, when economic conditions recovered and a full liberalization policy of PSA was shown by the government. Finally in 2002 the number exceeded 10,000. During this period the following were noted: the increase of elementary school children the metropolitan area (around Seoul City) sending out majority of PSA students the target countries focusing on English speaking countries (U.S.A., Canada, New Zealand) the increase of returning students including PSA students (over 8,000 in 2002) and yet about 20,000 departure surplus about 65% of the returnee students coming back to South Korea within two years In the third period (the Roh Moo-hyun administration period) when the economy was prosperous, the number of PSA students increased remarkably and reached about 30,000 in 2006. The PSA was now a choice in the life design for more children. The PSA phenomenon spread to Gyeonggi-do in the suburbs of Seoul and other cities, and the lower age PSA children were still on the increase. China and Southeast Asian countries rose to the second destination countries next to U.S.A. The large departure surplus continued, although the number of returnee students greatly increased, exceeding 20,000 in 2007, their stay abroad getting even shorter. In the fourth period (the Lee Myung-bak current administration period), the number of PSA students largely decreased under the global economic slump in spite of a further surge of the English fever in South Korea. The view that the PSA boom was now over was also shown because of the criticism and the doubt for the effect of the PSA. Tendencies of the lower aging of PSA students and the concentration to the metropolitan area are still seen. Southeast Asian countries are now the second popular destination countries after U.S.A. because one can learn English at relatively small expense. The number of the returnee students reached a highest record with about 24,000 in 2009, three years after the peak of the PSA students, reducing the departure excess to about 6,000. After 2009, the proportion of the returnee students who stayed longer in foreign countries is increasing.
- 大阪教育大学紀要. 1, 人文科学
大阪教育大学紀要. 1, 人文科学 61(2), 1-18, 2013-02