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Background: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) induces apoptosis in activated T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells as a ligand for T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3). Gal-9 also inhibits the G1 phase cell cycle arrest and hypertrophy in db/db mice, the hallmark of early diabetic nephropathy, by reversing the high glucose-induced up-regulation of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors such as p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1). Methods: We investigated the serum levels of Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes and various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 182). Results: Serum Gal-9 levels in the patients with type 2 diabetes were 131.9 +/- 105.4 pg/ml and Log(10)Gal-9 levels significantly and positively correlated with age (r = 0.227, p = 0.002), creatinine (r = 0.175, p = 0.018), urea nitrogen (r = 0.162, p = 0.028) and osmotic pressure (r = 0.187, p = 0.014) and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = -0.188, p = 0.011). Log(10)Gal-9 levels increased along with the progression of GFR categories of G1 to G4, and they were statistically significant by Jonckheere-Terpstra test (p = 0.012). Log(10)Gal-9 levels remained similar levels in albuminuria stages of A1 to A3. Conclusion: The elevation of serum Gal-9 in the patients with type 2 diabetes is closely linked to GFR and they may be related to the alteration of the immune response and inflammation of the patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD.


  • BMC Nephrology

    BMC Nephrology (14), 2013-01-22

    Biomed Central Ltd


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