四聖諦と八聖道の体系からみたcetovimuttiとpannavimutti Cetovimutti and pannavimutti and their Relevance to the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path
In the various teachings found in the Nikāyas, there is no consistent, systematic explanation about the process or method for how Buddhist practitioners achieve the "fruits of the saints" or attain emancipation. Since the descriptions of the same subject in different parts of the Nikāyas do not show clear correlation, and are somewhat fragmented, it would seem that the elements of the system of practice outlined in the Nikāyas are discordant with each other to a certain degree. However, by analyzing the different contexts that a certain subject is taught in, it is possible to understand these various teachings as a unified system. With this framework in mind, this paper explores the concept and attainment of cetovimutti (emancipation of the heart) and paññāvimutti (emancipation by wisdom), both states achieved by arahants, based on their relation to the system of "The Four Noble Truths" and "The Noble Eightfold Path." Doing so will clarify the following points. It is thought that cetovimutti is derived from the expression of meaning "release in the mind," or in other words "complete emancipation." However, it does not appear to carry the same meaning in every case. When cetovimutti and paññāvimutti appear as a pair, cetovimutti is placed at the midway point to emancipation, while complete emancipation is identified as achieving paññāvimutti. In this way, when cetovimutti and paññāvimutti both appear as a pair they both are regarded as the state of complete emancipation of an arahant. In other contexts, cetovimutti means "the release of the heart from lust (rāga) by achieving the eighth item in the Noble Eightfold Path (i.e sammāsamādhi or the four jhānas)," while paññāvimutti means "the release from ignorance (avijjā) by the attainment of wisdom that is the complete realization of the Four Noble Truths, attained by completing the Noble Eightfold Path." It is thought that by achieving the ninth and the tenth qualities of the ten qualities of arahant (dasa asekhā dhammā), right knowledge (sammāñāṇa) and right emancipation (sammāvimutti), the first eight items of this system are none other than the Noble Eightfold Path. In this case, paññāvimutti comes after cetovimutti, in the same way that wisdom (paññā) comes after meditation (samādhi).
インド哲学仏教学研究 (20), 27-41, 2013-03