16世紀中葉ロンドンの孤児・貧困児の養育委託 : クライスト・ホスピタル(Christ's Hospital)初期記録より [in Japanese] The Network of Fosterling in 16th Century London : 'Nurses' in The Early Days of Christ's Hospital [in Japanese]
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Christ's Hospital (CH) was one of the Royal London Hospitals established by London Corporation in 1552 transferred the authority from Henry VIII. CH was the special institution for healthy children. This paper focuses the records of placing out to 'nurses' in manuscripts of admission in early days of CH, and makes clear CH's family image in the process of sending out to 'nurses'. 'Nurses' were both women and men, and took care of children by the request of CH. They perhaps got some weekly wage, or some paid for the child, and received some children at once. 19 nurses accepted more than 10 children during 10 years (about 1066 people accepted CH children this period), and one took 33 children. There were some checking system about abuse, and so they may take care of them without problems. They, female and male nurses, sometimes took a child 'for her/his/their own child' 'for ever'. Some got money from CH, and some paid themselves. They were actually foster parents. One paid child to University. Some of children accepted CH were also put out to their parents. Little difference the record forms of 'nurses' and 'parents' surprises us. Some parents got some weekly pension same as 'nurses', and one mother accepted her own child as 'service'. 16^<th> century Londoners were perhaps accustomed to placing out customs as apprenticeship and service and so on, as Ariés says. System of placing out to nurses by CH was the supporting network for rearing poor children, administrated by CH, semi-official institution in early modern London. We hardly see emphasizing the parent's role of maintain and rearing their own children. We may regard this placing out to nurses or nursing system in CH as pre-modern child-rearing style by community before modernization of 'family'. But it was the system administrated by CH, so we can't say it was traditional.
大学院教育学研究紀要 (15), 23-38, 2012