協同学習における相互作用の規定因とその促進方略に関する研究の動向 [in Japanese] Trends in research on factors affecting interaction in cooperative learning and on strategies to promote student discourse [in Japanese]
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Cooperative learning is expected to improve social and academic achievement. However, when effective student interaction during cooperative learning is not achieved in the classroom, there is no noticeable improvement in learning effect. In this paper, first, the effects of cooperative learning were discussed. In cooperative learning, active group discussion among students promotes academic achievement. How active group interaction can be achieved was investigated. Formation of self-esteem and interpersonal attraction are promoted in cooperative learning. Teachers expect students to improve their academic achievement and socialization in cooperative learning, and in particular to deepen their interpersonal communication. Second, the factors affecting interaction in cooperative learning were examined. Factors directly related to learning, such as group-work tasks and differences in academic achievement, were first examined, and it was shown that they affected the quality of interaction in group discourse. Complex tasks or open-ended problems were found to encourage the participation of all group members. The influence of social factors on interaction was also examined. It was found that participation attitude toward cooperative learning, students' personal characteristics, and status characteristics (perceived by attractiveness, popularity, and academic standing) determine the quality of interaction in group discourse. Researchers have found that negative socioemotional behavior negatively impacts group functioning, and status characteristics can produce inequities in participation. For cooperative learning to succeed, students must learn to cooperate with their fellow students. Third, strategies used by teachers to promote group discourse among students were overviewed. In real classroom settings, high quality interaction among students is rare; therefore, for more effective interaction, instructional intervention by teachers is required. Concrete strategies to facilitate effective discussion include collaborative strategic reading, scripted cooperation, and reciprocal teaching. Additionally, teachers need to modify their intervention according to the characteristics of the students and their learning situation. Finally, the issues with research on cooperative learning were explored. In cooperative learning, students' quality of interaction with others has very important implications for the establishment of effective cooperative learning. Effective interaction promotes students' academic achievement. It is necessary to consider the effects of social factors when studying improvement of academic performance in cooperative learning. Recent research on cooperative learning has focused on discourse analysis of group learning. Through discourse analysis, the processes through which social factors affect academic achievement in cooperative learning have been elucidated in nowadays.
- 名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 心理発達科学 60, 83-93, 2013