Macrophage-mediated glucolipotoxicity via myeloid-related protein 8/toll-like receptor 4 signaling in diabetic nephropathy.
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Dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this review, we summarize mouse models with both diabetes and dyslipidemia, and their associated complications. We then discuss molecules potentially involved in deterioration of DN by dyslipidemia. We focus especially upon toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and one of its endogenous ligands, myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8 or S100A8), since we have found that their mRNA levels are commonly increased in glomeruli of type 1 (streptozotocin [STZ]-induced) and type 2 (A-ZIP/F-1 lipoatrophic) diabetic mice. Gene expression of MRP8 and Tlr4 is further upregulated during worsening of STZ-induced DN by a high fat diet (HFD). Moreover, these HFD-induced changes are accompanied by enhanced gene expression of CCAAT element binding protein β and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the kidney, which have also been reported in pancreatic β cells under diabetic-hyperlipidemic conditions. Effects of a HFD upon DN are cancelled in Tlr4 knockout mice. Macrophages are the predominant source of MRP8 in glomeruli. In cultured macrophages, combinatorial treatment with high glucose and palmitate amplifies MRP8 expression in a Tlr4-dependent manner, and recombinant MRP8 protein markedly increases gene expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α. Here, we propose 'macrophage-mediated glucolipotoxicity' via activation of MRP8/TLR4 signaling as a novel mechanism of pathophysiology for DN.
- Clinical and experimental nephrology
Clinical and experimental nephrology 18(4), 584-592, 2014-08