久米島における祭地とその由来 [in Japanese] Festival Places and their Derivation in Kumejima, Ryukyu Islands [in Japanese]
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The utaki and its festival in Kumejima have original characteristics. In later times, the elements which had not been in Kumejima were introduced, and they were transformed. Through the examination of the current utaki and the old documents of Kumejima, following remarks are concluded as for the origin of utaki: 1. Utaki is based on the blood relationships called Makiyo or the settlement society called Mura or Shima. New utaki was established with the movement of a settlement and from there the former place was worshiped. Utaki has the meaning of Otoshi, and is thought of as the site where man is tied to god. 2. Forest god, fire god, well god, rain god, marine god and so on are enshrined in utaki. Basically, natures are enshrined, and utaki did not relate to ancestor's soul or ancestor worship. 3. In Kumejima, each clan had a female god (priest) called Kaminchu. All Kaminchu were organized under Ryukyu dynasty, and among them, Kimihae was concerned with the ruling of the feudal lord called Aji. Utaki is thought to have been founded by an original female god, before Kimihae-Noro organization. 4. Major festivals are carried out mainly in Kimihae house and Noro houses around. However, utaki does not connect with such major festivals, but with small festivals which were founded before the control of Ryukyu dynasty. 5. Gods are enshrined in utaki, and Kaminchues circulate among them. To pray for rain, they visit utaki or sacred big stones, especially in the west end of the island, where marine god is enshrined. Utaki is placed in a settlement, worships gods of nature, is related to female gods before the religious organization, is not strongly tied with later festivals, and is made a pilgrimage to. The festival sites such as utaki has original characteristics basically. They are deeply concerned with nature, and act as an agent to mediate between man and nature.
富山大学人間発達科学部紀要 9(1), 199-220, 2014