朝鮮時代における三司の言論と官人の處罰 [in Japanese] Three Organs of Opinion and the Punishments of Scholar-officials in Joseon Korea [in Japanese]
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There were three organs of opinion in the Joseon government, namely sahonbu (Office of Censors), saganwon (Office of Remonstrators), and hongmungwan (Office of Academic Counselors). They had a strong influence on the political world of Joseon Korea. They investigated the wrong deeds of the officials, and the defendant were required to submit an informal resignation, even if not guilty at all. The punishment was decided by the king, if guilty, in accordance with the request of the three organs of opinion. It was regarded as a virtue of the sovereign that the king obeyed the opinions of scholar-officials, which were represented through the activities of the three organs. However, the final decision was made only by the king, who sometimes neglected the requests of the three organs. The king decided the punishments, which were based on the original customs of Joseon Korea, and which had a different system from that of the penal code of Ming China. However, those who received the punishments of dismissal, banishment, or death penalty, still possessed honor by virtue of being a scholar-official. It was not unusual for the king to retract the punishments and redeem the honor of scholar-officials under certain changes in political circumstances. Thus, it can be said that the absolute power of the king was still restricted by the public opinions of scholar-officials.
- 東方学報 = Journal of Oriental studies
東方学報 = Journal of Oriental studies 89, 1-64, 2014-12