『左傳』における「後」について [in Japanese] A study of "hou" in the Zuozhuan [in Japanese]
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This article, taking into account the functions of texts in the Warring States period, analyzes "hou" 後, meaning "successor," in the Zuozhuan 左傳 and other sources. All of the instances in which the existence of a hou is mentioned in the Zuozhuan are episodes about the dafu 大夫 class (aristocracy), and although a few of the instances referring to the absence of a hou are about monarchs, most of them are about dafu. Most of the hou connected by blood relationships appear in conversational passages and few of them in narrative sections. Because hou are often mentioned in argumentative and conversational passages, it would seem appropriate to infer that arguments about hou evolved later. In the Shijing 詩經, Shangshu 尚書, and some bronze inscriptions, hou refers exclusively to a successor related by blood, and he is expected to conduct ancestral rites. Most of the people referred to as hou in the Zuozhuan are monarchs who come from the stock of the Western Zhou dynasty and people of the dafu class who come from comparatively old clans (shi 氏). On the other hand, the reason for the presence or absence of a hou is not infrequently associated with ideological terms such as "virtue" (de 德) and so on, and the existence of a hou was not based solely on the principle of blood relationships. After the Spring and Autumn period, prefectures (xian 縣) were established to replace city-states (you 邑), and dafu and lowerranking people were dispatched as administrators from the capital, eventually supporting the rule of the central authorities after the Warring States period. Their positions could not be guaranteed solely by their blood relationships. It could also be said that prefecture-like elements, which later expanded from the Spring and Autumn period to the Warring States period, were inserted into the Zuozhuan.
東洋文化研究所紀要 167, 1-62, 2015-03