Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and Foxp3 expression: viral strategy in vivo.
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Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and inflammatory diseases, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, uveitis and infective dermatitis. However, it remains to be elucidated how HTLV-1 induces both neoplastic and inflammatory diseases. A critical component in the Treg-cell machinery is the transcription factor Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), which is expressed in ~5% of CD4(+) T cells of healthy individuals. Foxp3 is expressed in around 80% of ATL cases. Recent studies point to the capacity of Treg cells to convert to other cell types, even to those with an inflammatory phenotype. These characteristics might indicate that Treg cells might be playing a critical role in HTLV-1 infection, either by being targeted by the virus or by regulating and modulating the immune response. In this review, we will discuss the interplay between Foxp3 expression and HTLV-1, focusing on important viral proteins that might help the virus to trigger the development of such diverse pathologies.
- International immunology
International immunology 26(8), 419-425, 2014-05-02
Oxford University Press