Clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis in non-HIV patients in Japan
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OBJECTIVE: To clarify the clinical features of pulmonary cryptococcosis in Japanese non-HIV population. METHODS: Retrospective investigation of 151 pulmonary cryptococcosis cases between 1977 and 2012 was executed. The underlying disease (UDs), aggravating factors, radiological characteristics, and treatment were examined. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (44.4%) had no UDs. The common UDs were diabetes (32.1%) followed by hematologic disease (22.6%), and collagen disease (22.6%). Peripherally distributed pulmonary nodules/masses were most commonly seen. Lesions in the right middle lobe (p = 0.01) and air bronchogram (P = 0.05) were significantly more frequent, respectively, in patients with UDs than patients without them. Azoles were mainly selected for the patients without meningoencephalitis. Mean treatment duration for patients with and without UDs was 6.64 and 2.87 months, respectively. Patients whose pulmonary nodules improved after treatment continued to experience gradual reduction of cryptococcosis antigen titers, even if antigen titers were positive at the time of treatment cessation. The average time for antigen titers to become negative after treatment cessation was 13.1 and 10.7 months for patients with and without UDs, respectively. When groups were compared according to the presence of meningoencephalitis complications, deaths, and survivals, factors contributing to cryptococcosis prognosis included higher age, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, steroid use, high C-reactive protein levels, and meningoencephalitis complications. CONCLUSIONS: It is crucial to consider the presence of UDs and meningoencephalitis for the choice of antifungals and treatment duration for cryptococcosis in non-HIV patients. Three- and six months-administration of azoles for pulmonary cryptococcosis with or without UDs, respectively is reasonable.
- Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 21(1), 23-30, 2015-01