An Outline of the History of Waka in the Edo Period 近世和歌史概説 An Outline of the History of Waka in the Edo Period

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本稿は、近世和歌史の全体像を、最新の研究動向を踏まえながら英文で簡潔に綴ったもの。歌壇史や和歌表現の研究を軸として、近年の和歌史研究の進展には目を瞠るものがあるが、中でも近世和歌の研究はこの四半世紀で飛躍的に進捗した。〈堂上から地下へ〉というパラダイムが確立し、研究者相互の共通理解となったことは、和歌史研究においてもまた近世文学研究においても非常に大きな意味がある。江戸時代にあって、和歌は漢学漢詩文と並んで終始〈雅〉の領域に属しており、公家にとっては必須の「道」、武家にとっては抜き差しならない「教養」、そして庶民にとっては上昇志向を満たし得る上々の「趣味」でもあった。江戸前期に堂上が領導していた和歌は、徐々に時代が下るにつれて地下歌人の活躍が目立つようになり、〈俗文学〉とも広く深く交渉するようになっていった。江戸中期には、〈地下から地方へ〉というパラダイムも確立する。本稿では、近世和歌史を前期(幕初から元禄まで)、中期(宝永から天明まで)、後期(寛政から慶応まで)の三期に分かち、それぞれ「堂上の時代」「堂上から地下への過渡期的時代」「国学派全盛の時代」と定義した上で、各時期の特質を可能な限り広い視野をもって概述、末尾には研究案内を兼ねて、近年を中心に主要な研究文献を掲出した。In this paper I will try to briefly sketch in English a whole picture of the history of waka in the Edo Period, together with the results of the latest study of it. Recently, Shinpen-kokka-taikan(新編国歌大観) has become available on-line and this has greatly advanced the study of expressions of waka as well as the study of kadan-shi(歌壇史,History of poetry salons). In particular, the study of waka in the Edo Period developed at a dramatic rate during the past quarter of the century. It is very significant for the study of waka-shi(和歌史,History of waka) and of Edo literature (近世文学) that this has created the new paradigm "from tosho (堂上,Emperor and Court noble) to jige (地下,The others)" , which has become a common ground of understanding among researchers.In the Edo Period, waka literature, like kangaku (漢学,Study of Chinese classics) and kanshi(漢詩 ,Chinese poetry), falls under ga(雅) and it was a necessary way for Court noble, an essential culture for samurai, and the very best hobby for common people that could satisfy their ambition to rise in the world. During the first term of the Edo Period (from the establishment of the shogunate to genroku,幕初~元禄/1603-1703) waka was popular among tosho(堂上). So it is very important to keep in mind the fact that as jige-kajin (地下歌人 Poets of jige) became active over time, it also interacted closely with zoku(俗). In the second term of the Edo Period (from hoei to tenmei,宝永~天明/ 1704-1788), it has created the new paradigm "from jige(地下) to chiho(地方)".Here I take the position that Kinsei(近世) is equal to the Edo Period(江戸時代), and I will divide it into three terms for the sake of An Outline of the History of Waka in the Edo Perioddiscussion. I define the time from the establishment of the shogunate(幕初,1603) to genroku(元禄,1703) as the first term, the time from hoei (宝永,1704) to tenmei (天明,1788) as the second, and the time from kansei (寛政,1789) to keio (慶応,1867) as the third. We can say that the first term corresponds to the 17th century, the second to the 18th century, and the third to the 19th century. Or if we focus on what happened, we can also say that the first is the Period of tosho (堂上), the second the transitional Period from tosho(堂上) to jige (地下),and the third the Period of jige (地下), especially kokugakuha (国学派,The Japanese classics), respectively. I will try to briefly sketch out each term. At the end of the paper, I provide a list of recent major works on waka in the Edo Period, hoping that it will be helpful for those who are interested.


  • 国文学研究資料館紀要. 文学研究篇

    国文学研究資料館紀要. 文学研究篇 (40), 5-27, 2014-03



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