祭礼を飾るもの--1つ物の成立と伝播 Festival Decoration : Origin and Spread of Hitotsumono




一つ物と称する稚児や人形がお渡りする祭礼がある。従来民俗学ではこれをヨリマシ(憑坐・依坐)・ヨリシロ(憑代・依代)と解釈してきた。それに対して、本稿では近畿・九州地方の事例を中心に検討することによって一つ物を再考する。一つ物は平安末期に畿内の祭礼において、馬長(童)が田楽・王の舞・獅子舞・十列・巫女神楽・相撲・競馬・流鏑馬という当時の典型的な祭礼芸能の構成に組み入れられることによって成立した。その成立の場は、宇治・春日・祇園・稲荷・今宮・日吉などの祭にある。一つ物は中世に畿内の祭礼・法会芸能から各地へ、天台―日吉社系の神事芸能構成の一つとして、あるいは八幡社放生会系の神事芸能構成の一つとして伝播した。各地に土着した一つ物は、中世祭祀組織や宮座が解体・変質すると多くのものは消えていった。一つ物はもともと若者や大人も勤め、その生命は意外性や目立つ趣向にあった。しかし、一つ物は祭という同一の形が繰り返される行為のなかで、芸もなくマンネリ化がすすみ多くのものは飽きられて消えていった。そのなかで、稚児や人形が動員されることによってのみ愛でられ命脈を保ち得た。一つ物は元来神賑であったので行列に参加する宗教的意味は希薄で、近代になって民俗学者により憑坐と解釈された。一つ物の本質が、本来の俗(渡り物の一種)から聖(神霊の憑坐)へと解釈されていき現在の定説となっている。一つ物はその発生の平安期の祭礼において、すでに神輿とともに登場している。神学的にいうなら神は神輿にのって御旅所にお渡りするのに、何故別に憑坐に神を憑らせなくてはならないのだろうか。「一つ物」の「一つ」は、数詞とともに一番という順序の意味もあり、一番最初にお渡りをする、一番目立つ、という二つの意味があるのではないか。一つ物の本質は、渡り物・神幸・神のみゆき(お渡り)・渡御・行列(パレード)における風流なのである。In some festivals, a child or doll called "Hitotsumono" passes in the procession. In folklore, this has been conventionally interpreted as Yorimashi or Yorishiro (an image into which the divine spirit enters). As against this, this paper reviews the Hitotsumono by investigating examples mainly in the Kinki and Kyûshû Districts. The Hitotsumono came into being in the late Heian Period in the festivals of the Kinai Region, when a horse driver (a child) was brought into the framework of then typical festival entertainments, such as Dengaku (ritual music and dancing performed in Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples), O-no-mai (King's Dance), Shishimai (ritual lion dance), Seinoo (Court dance performed at the Kasuga shrine), Mikokagura (shrine maidens' music and dancing), Sumô (wrestling), Kurabeuma (horse racing), and Yabusame (horseback archery). The Hitotsumono appeared in the festivals of shrines at Uji, Kasuga, Gion, Inari, Imamiya, and Hie. The Hitotsumono spread from these festivals in the Kinai Region in the early Middle Ages, to various parts of the country, as one of the entertainments for divine service connected with the Tendai-sect and Hie-Shrine, or as one of the entertainments for divine service connected with the Hachiman-Shrine Hôjôe (Buddhist ceremony in which captured animals and fish are released to fields, mountains, ponds or marshes). Many of the Hitotsumono, which became established in various areas, disappeared when the framework of the festivals of the Middle Ages and the Miyaza (local organizations for festivals) were dissolved, or changed in quality. The Hitotsumono was, originally, performed also by young people and adults, and its existence depended on unexpectedness and eye-catching ideas. However, in the repetition of the same acts in festivals, the Hitotsumono became stereotyped with no special art, and most of them lost popularity and disappeared. Only Hitotsumono which brought a child or a doll into the performance remained in existence. The Hitotsumono was originally a medium, so its participation in a parade had no religious meaning. In the Modern Age, folklorists came to consider it as an image into which the divine spirit enters. The interpretation of the essence of the Hitotsumono shifted from that of its original secular existence (a type of performance in the parade) to a sacred one (an image into which the divine spirit enters); the latter is the commonly accepted opinion at the present. The Hitotsumono already existed in festivals in the Heian Period, together with Mikoshi (portable shrines). From the theological viewpoint, the question is why a god should have to rest on a separate image, though the god passes to Otabisho (the resting place) by a portable shrine? "Hitotsu" of the Hitotsumono is not a cardinal number, but an ordinal number. It seems to have two meanings; the Hitotsumono passes by first, and it is the most conspicuous. The essence of the Hitotsumono is the elegance of the procession, the divine presence, the divine visit, or passage, or parade.


  • 国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告

    国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 (45), p257-325, 1992-12


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