鎌倉期の諏訪神社関係史料にみる神道と仏道--中世御記文の時代的特質について  [in Japanese] Shinto and Buddhism as depicted in historical materials related to Suwa Shrines of the Kamakura period: temporal characteristics of medieval imperial writings  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

鎌倉前期の諏訪神社史料群は、『吾妻鏡』や『金沢文庫文書』などが中核になっており、鎌倉後期には『陬波御記文』『陬波私注』『隆弁私記』『仲範朝臣記』『諏訪効験』『広疑瑞決集』など諏訪信仰に関する史料群が数多くつくられた。これらは、いずれも鎌倉諏訪氏と金澤称名寺の関係僧侶の結合によって集積されたものを基礎資料にしてつくられたものという点で共通している。鎌倉期には、中央の国史や諸記録には知りえない知の体系として諏訪縁起が編纂され、関東で仰信される信仰圏が成立していた。鎌倉期においては、神の誓願・口筆を御記文とし、その聴聞を神の神託として重視する思想が流布した。その中で、諏訪大祝の現人神説や祝の神壇居所説、諏訪明神は「生替之儀」があるとする再生信仰など諏訪信仰独自の神道思想が形成されていた。仏教における念仏思想が諏訪神官層にも浸透して、仏道における神職は死後蛇道におちるという社会通念の存在する中で、仏道との葛藤の中から、諏訪神道という独自の思想が形つくられた。諏訪「神道」思想が、伊勢神道や吉田神道が成立する以前のものとして言説化していたこと、などを主張した。

Documents such as "Azuma Kagami" and "Kanazawa Bunko Bunsho" comprise the core of archival material dating from the early Kamakura period on the history of the Suwa shrine, while numerous collections of materials were written on Suwa religious beliefs during the late Kamakura period, including "Suwa Kimon", "Suwa Shichu", "Ryuben Shiki", "Nakanori Asonki", and "Suwa Kogen, Kogisuiketu-shu". A common feature of these materials is that each constitutes a basic corpus of materials collected as a result of the union between the Kamakura Suwa clan and Buddhist priests associated with Kanezawa Shomyo-ji temple. During the Kamakura period, Suwa religious beliefs took hold in the Kanto region following the compilation of Suwa Engi to form a body of knowledge that could not be acquired from national histories and the various records of the central government. The vows, utterances, and writings of deities were recorded, and a belief setting great store in these as divine messages from deities became popular. Shinto beliefs unique to this Suwa religion were created, including beliefs that the Suwa Ohori (head priest) was a living deity and that this deity resided in the shrine altar. Another was the belief in rebirth based on the "rebirth ceremony" of the deity Suwa Myojin. Suwa priests were familiar with the nembutsu belief (in the after-life) in Buddhism and at a time when it was commonly believed that Buddhist priests would be reborn as serpents, Suwa Shinto emerged as a separate religion as a result of tension with Buddhism. This paper argues that Suwa Shinto came into being as a set of beliefs before Ise Shinto or Yoshida Shinto.

Journal

  • Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History

    Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History 139, 157-185, 2008-03

    国立歴史民俗博物館

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120005748619
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00377607
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • ISSN
    02867400
  • NDL Article ID
    9615054
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG6(歴史・地理--日本)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-2017
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR 
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