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Long-term efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT) remains unclear for patients with previously untreated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to study the long-term outcomes of PBT according to Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging classifications in patients with previously untreated HCC. The major eligibility criteria of this observational study were an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) 0–2, Child–Pugh grade A or B, previously untreated HCC covered within an irradiation field, and no massive ascites. A total of 66.0–77.0 GyE was administered in 10–35 fractions. Local tumor control (LTC), defined as no progression in the irradiated field, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed according to BCLC staging. From 2002 to 2009 at our institution, 129 patients were eligible. The 5-year LTC, PFS, and OS rates were 94%, 28%, and 69% for patients with 0/A stage disease (n = 9/21), 87%, 23%, and 66% for patients with B stage disease (n = 34), and 75%, 9%, and 25% for patients with C stage disease (n = 65), respectively. The 5-year LTC and OS rates of 15 patients with tumor thrombi in major vessels were 90% and 34%, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that PS (0 versus 1–2) was a significant prognostic factor for OS. No grade 3 or higher adverse effects were observed. PBT showed favorable long-term efficacies with mild adverse effects in BCLC stage 0 to C, and can be an alternative treatment for localized HCC especially when accompanied with tumor thrombi. This study was registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000025342).


  • Cancer science

    Cancer science 108(3), 497-503, 2017-03




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