高齢者・障害者の交通政策・計画に関する国際比較 (特集 バリアフリー交通と地震災害) [in Japanese] Transportation Policy and Planning for Elderly & Disabled [in Japanese]
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わが国の交通政策は欧米先進諸国の様々な影響を受けており障害者・高齢者の交通政策においても類似した政策の展開が進んでいる。この点からも欧米の政策研究はわが国の政策に少なからず役立つと考えられることから、過去30年の動きを整理することが本論の狙いである。研究の対象は先進的な対策を行ってきた米国、カナダ、スウェーデン、英国、日本の5ヵ国を対象とした。研究の目的については以下の2点とした。第一は、各国の制度の特徴を整理したうえで、障害者・高齢者のモビリティ問題と深く結びついている、差別禁止法などの人権にどの様に結びついてきたかを明らかにすることである。第二は、地域交通システム発展の原動力になったSTS (Special Transport Service: 高齢者・障害者に限定してサービスするシステムのこと、ここではSTサービスという)やそれに関連する公共交通のアクセス確保などが、どの様に展開してきたかを明らかにすることである。
1. Background There are two main direction how local transport system for elderly and disabled (E&D) has been developed, and how the measures have been taken. First, the situation disabled cannot participate socially has been regarded as legal discrimination, especially with remarkable changes in the United States of American, United Kingdom, Canada, and Sweden. Secondly, social participation of E&D has been advanced both politically and technically in transportation. One example is the special correspondence: For E&D who cannot use conventional public transport, specialized transport has been operated, and who can move in cars have been supported. The other example is from the viewpoint of universal design; Conventional public transport has been started to change to increase the use of E&D, in accessible design, subsidy for user side and supply side, and information system. With these changes, E&D will be able to move comfortably, and it will lead us to create social inclusion. At present, the rift between the countermeasures of specialized transport and of public transport (bus and railway) has been begun to be closed. By the transportation system of Demand Responsive Transport (DRT), concretely service route in Sweden and flex route in Europe, new direction of countermeasures has been started to grope.2. Purpose of Research In the main text, this study was conducted on the following five countries, USA, Canada, Sweden, UK and Japan. Firstly, after clarifying system characteristics in each country, the relationship with human rights which has been deeply connected to mobility problems of E&D will be explained. Secondly, the development of surrounding Special Transport Service (ST Service), which has worked as a driving force to develop community transport system, and securement of accessibility in public transport, will be started. Thirdly, the course of action in community transport system will be hammered out.3. Result The important points of legal process in European and American advanced countries are a) equalization by human rights, and b) support system in accessibility of public transport. 1) Legal Process: Equality by human rights has been concretely guaranteed in using transport. Typical examples are Rehabilitation Act in US, and Canada Human Rights Act. In each country, accessibility of public transport has been actively improved concerning mainly railway station and airport, regular bus and vehicle and tram station and vehicles. 2) Reduction of financial payment and securement of financial resources: Financial payment: In Sweden, various attempts (changeover to bus and service route) have been made for the purpose of reducing payments of STS. Securement of new financial resources: As ISTEA (1991) in U.S., flexible fund has been done, in which 5% of road financial resources can be used for public transport (vice versa). 3) Reinforcement of STS: In advanced countries except Japan, STS is clearly placed as community transport. From social welfare to public transport measures: In Sweden, STS has been placed as the measure for public transport, not as the measure for social welfare before. Separation of transport and medical service: In England and the U.S., operation service is provided, which is separated to medical service and transport. However US try to change this situation.
- Comprehensive urban studies
Comprehensive urban studies (85), 5-16, 2005-03