日本華僑の共同墓地と后土・土地神の考察 : 日本国内の華僑霊園の地域差に注目して (人の移動とその動態に関する民俗学的研究)  [in Japanese] A Study of Public Cemeteries of Chinese Living in Japan and HouTu/the Deities of Earth : Focus on Regional Differences in Chinese Cemeteries in Japan  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

神戸・横浜等の南京街を拠点とする,日本に在住する華僑・華人の歴史は,近代の開国とともに始まり,彼らのための公共墓地が設立される。神戸・横浜の中華義荘(横浜は入口に建てられる「地蔵王廟」が,霊園全体の通称となっている)がそれで,その後,神戸から分化して,京都華僑のための京都華僑霊園が黄檗宗萬福寺に開かれる。一方,近世の鎖国政策のもとでも中国との交易が続いていた長崎には,崇福寺をはじめとする唐寺や稲佐悟真寺等に,唐人墓地が併設される。これら華僑華人の墓地と,一般的な日本(人)の墓地とが大きく異なるのは,華僑墓地には「后土」「土神」として,土地神の石碑が立てられることである。神戸・横浜以上の長期,鎖国時代を含む3世紀を超える中国との交流を有する長崎では,日本人墓地でも,土神が立てられることが現在なお一般的であることなど,中国の習俗が日本に影響を与えている。これら日本の華僑華人の墓地において注目されるのは,「后土」「土神」等の土地神の石碑の立てられる位置や,墓地における祭祀の方法が,長崎,神戸・京都,横浜で異なることである。日本華僑は,福建・広東・台湾等の出身者を主とするが,本論文では,日本国内の華僑霊園の后土神の祭祀の相違が,故郷(僑郷,原籍地)の習俗を反映したものか,あるいは,日本への定住後に,それぞれが辿った歴史の中で差異を生じるようになったのかを検討,考察した。また,原籍地の習俗との相違や,故郷の習俗を現体験として保持している現代の華僑1世の記憶や意識についても検討した。日本における華僑華人の先祖祭祀として4月の清明節は,本国と同様に年中行事の中でもっとも重要であるが,そのほか神戸等で盂蘭盆行事,中元節として行われる普度勝会にも言及しつつ,日本における華僑華人の公共墓地のなかで,后土が,彼らの日本移住後に経験した大震災等の自然災害等の辛苦の歴史を共有するための役割を果たす,日本で暮らす華僑・華人にとっての共同意識の紐帯となるような,公共的な意味を帯びるようになって現在に続いていることを明らかにした。The history of Chinese living in Japan, based in Chinatowns in Kobe, Yokohama, and other cities, began with the opening of modern Japan. They built their own public cemeteries, such as Chuka Giso in Kobe and Yokohama (the latter is generally called "Jizō-ō-byō" because of the temple built near its entrance). Later, Kyoto Kakyo Reien, a cemetery for Chinese living in Kyoto, was built at Oubaku-sect Manpuku-ji Temple, separated from Chuka Giso in Kobe. Meanwhile, in Nagasaki, which continued trades with China even during the seclusion period in the early modern times, Chinese tombs are located in Japanese cemeteries at Chinese temples(e.g., Sofuku-ji Temple), Inasa-Goshin-ji Temple, and other temples. One of the major differences between these Chinese cemeteries and general Japanese cemeteries is that the former has a stone monument of the gods of earth called "HouTu (Shen)" or "Tu Shen". In Nagasaki, which has a longer history of exchanges with China (i.e., over three centuries) than Kobe and Yokohama do, Chinese culture has had a large impact on Japanese cemeteries; for example, it is now very common to build a monument of the gods of earth in Japanese cemeteries in the city. Another fact worth noting about the cemeteries of Chinese-Japanese, who are mainly from Fujian, Guangdong, and Taiwan, is that the location of such a stone monument, as well as burial rituals, varies between Nagasaki, Kobe/Kyoto, and Yokohama. This paper examines whether these differences were caused by the difference of their homelands or arose after they settled in Japan due to the difference of their experiences. Moreover, this paper analyzes the differences between the customs of Chinese-Japanese and those of their homelands as well as the memories and attitudes of current first-generation immigrants who have actually experienced the customs of their hometowns. In particular, this paper examines the Qing Ming Festival held in April to honor ancestors (the most important festival in the year for Chinese not only in Japan but also in the Mainland and Taiwan) as well as Fudo-shoe held as a Chinese Bon Festival in Kobe and some other cities. Thus, this paper reveals that in Chinese cemeteries in Japan, the deity of earth is still honored today while acquiring a public meaning as it is playing a certain role in building a sense of community among the Chinese living in Japan and sharing the experience of ordeals, such as great earthquakes and other natural disasters, after their settlement in Japan.

Journal

  • 国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History

    国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History 199, 213-232, 2015-12

    国立歴史民俗博物館

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120006301627
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00377607
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • ISSN
    0286-7400
  • NDL Article ID
    027117668
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-2017
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR 
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