Secondary electron emission and surface charging evaluation of alumina ceramics and sapphire
The breakdown of alumina rf windows is mostly caused by multipactor, as well as by material defects and contamination. Since multipator induces localized surface heating, leading to surface melting, it is necessary to observe secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficients of alumina ceramics under high temperature conditions. The SEE coefficients of commercial alumina ceramics and sapphire were measured by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with a single short-pulsed electron beam (100 pA, 1 ms) at room temperature and at 650 degrees C. Additive materials used for sintering alumina, such as SiO2 and MgO, were also investigated. Surface charging evaluations have also become important because the accumulated charges are discharged at the threshold field, resulting in surface discharge. The surface charging evaluations were carried out by multi-pulse measurements with the injection of successive pulses on the sample. As a result, reductions in the SEE coefficients with temperature were confirmed, except for sapphire. The multi-pulse measurement results indicated that surface charging of the sapphire was higher than that of other samples. This may be one of the factors that causes sapphire not to be durable for rf window applications, compared with alumina ceramics. Although there are few exceptions, it was found that the SEE coefficients of alumina ceramics increased with the purity and the average grain size.
- IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DIELECTRICS AND ELECTRICAL INSULATION 13(1), 72-78, 2006
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC