Information processing from the motor cortices to the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus and their somatotopic organizations revealed electrophysiologically in monkeys
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To understand how the information derived from different motor cortical areas representing different body parts is organized in the basal ganglia, we examined the neuronal responses in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus (input, relay and output nuclei, respectively) to stimulation of the orofacial, forelimb and hindlimb regions of the primary motor cortex (MI) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in macaque monkeys under the awake state. Most STN and GPe/GPi neurons responded exclusively to stimulation of either the MI or SMA, and one-fourth to one-third of neurons responded to both. STN neurons responding to the hindlimb, forelimb and orofacial regions of the MI were located along the medial–lateral axis in the posterolateral STN, while neurons responding to the orofacial region of the SMA were located more medially than the others in the anteromedial STN. GPe/GPi neurons responding to the hindlimb, forelimb and orofacial regions of the MI were found along the dorsal–ventral axis in the posterolateral GPe/GPi, and neurons responding to the corresponding regions of the SMA were similarly but less clearly distributed in more anteromedial regions. Moreover, neurons responding to the distal and proximal forelimb MI regions were found along the lateral–medial axis in the STN and the ventral–dorsal axis in the GPe/GPi. Most STN and GPe/GPi neurons showed kinaesthetic responses with similar somatotopic maps. These observations suggest that the somatotopically organized inputs from the MI and SMA are well preserved in the STN and GPe/GPi with partial convergence.
- European Journal of Neuroscience
European Journal of Neuroscience 46(11), 2684-2701, 2017-12