明治・大正期における「江戸」の商品化 : 三越百貨店の「元禄模様」と「江戸趣味」創出をめぐって (歴史表象の形成と消費文化)  [in Japanese] Commercialization of the Edo Style in the Meiji and Taisho Periods : The Booms of Genroku Patterns and Edo Taste Created by Mitsukoshi Department Store  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

国民国家としての「日本」成立以降,今日に到るまで,さまざまな立場で共有する物語を形成する際に「参照」され,「発見」される「伝統」の多くは,「基層文化」としての原始・古代と,都市江戸を主な舞台とした「江戸」である。明治20年代から関東大震災前までの時期は,「江戸」が「発見」された嚆矢であり,時間差を生じながら,政治的位相と商品化の位相で進行した。前者は,欧化政策への反撥,国粋保存主義として明治20年代に表出してくるもので,「日本」固有の伝統の創造という日本型国民国家論の中で,「江戸」の国民国家への接合として,注目されてきた。しかし後者の商品化の位相についてはいまだ検討が不十分である。そこで本稿では,明治末より大正期において三越がすすめた「江戸」の商品化,具体的には,日露戦後の元禄模様,および大正期の生活・文化の位相での「江戸趣味」の流行をとりあげ,「江戸」の商品化のしくみと影響を検討した。明らかになったのは以下の点である。①元禄模様,元禄ブームは三越が起こしたもので,これに関係したのが,茶話会と実物の展示という文人的世界を引き継いだ元禄会である。同会では対象を元禄期に限定して,さまざまな事象や,時代の評価をめぐる議論,そして模様の転用の是非が問われた。ただし,元禄会は旧幕臣戸川残花の私的なネットワークで成立したもので,三越が創出したわけではなかった。残花の白木屋顧問就任や,三越直営の流行会が機能したこともあって,残花との関係は疎遠になる。元禄会自体は,最後は文芸協会との聯合研究会で終焉する。また,元禄ブーム自体も凋落した。②大正期の「江戸」の商品化に際しては,三越の諮問会である流行会からの発案で分科会たる江戸趣味研究会が誕生する。彼らは対象を天明期に絞り,資料編纂の上で研究をすすめ,「天明振」の提案を目指した。しかし,研究成果は生かされず,元禄を併存した形で時期・階層の無限定な江戸趣味の展覧会が行われる。そして,イメージとしての「江戸趣味」が江戸を生きたことの無い人々の中に定位することを助長した。「江戸」は商品化の中で,関東大震災を迎える前に,現実逃避の永井荷風の「江戸」ともまた異なった,漠然としたイメージになったのである。その後,「江戸趣味研究会」の研究の方向性は,国文学や,三田村鳶魚の江戸研究へと引き継がれていくことになった。Many of the "traditions" that have been "referred to" or "recognized" to form a national identity of members of different social groups since the establishment of Japan as a nation state up until now are based on the fundamental culture shaped in the primitive/ancient times and the culture developed in the City of Edo. An "Edo style" was first "recognized" during the period from the Meiji 20s (1887-1896) to the Great Kantō Earthquake of 1923. It was developed politically and commercially in different time spans. The political development of the style manifested itself in forms of resistance against Europeanization policies and desire for preservation of national characteristics in the Meiji 20s. These phenomena have been analyzed in the studies of Japanese-type nation-state building, which indicate that Edo culture created "Japanese traditions" and thus integrated the country as a nation state. On the other hand, the commercialization has not been fully analyzed. Therefore, this article examines the commercialization of the Edo style promoted by Mitsukoshi from the end of the Meiji period to the Taishō period (at the beginning of the 20th century). More specifically, this paper focuses on the great boom of Genroku patterns after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 and the Edo taste widely adopted in daily life and culture during the Taishō period (1912-1926) to analyze the mechanism and impact of the commercialization of the Edo style. The results of the analysis indicate the following two points.i. The boom of Genroku patterns was created by Mitsukoshi with support from Genroku-kai, a society spun off from a literary circle to organize tea parties and exhibitions of Genroku culture. The society's discussions focused on matters relating to the Genroku years from 1688 to 1704, including various phenomena and criticisms of the era and the appropriateness of reinterpretation of Genroku patterns. Genroku-kai was founded, not by Mitsukoshi, but by Zanka Togawa, a former retainer of the Tokugawa Shogunate, by using his private network. Eventually, Zanka and Mitsukoshi were estranged, in part because he was appointed to Senior Advisor of Shirokiya and in part because the Ryūkō-kai, an advisory group of Mitsukoshi, functioned to fulfill its intended purpose. Genroku-kai ended up in merging with Bungei Kyōkai to become Rengō Kenkyū-kai, and the Genroku boom lost its momentum.ii. The "Edo style" of the Taishō period was commercialized by Edo Shumi Kenkyū-kai established by Ryūkō-kai as its subcommittee to study Edo taste. They focused their theme on the Tenmei years from 1781 to 1789, compiling various data to create a "Tenmei style." Their study results, however, were given little attention. When an exhibition of Edo taste was held, various Edo styles, including the Genroku style, were combined, irrespective of class or time period. This helped an image of "Edo taste" establish itself among people who had never experienced the Edo period. Thus, a vague but new image of Edo taste was shaped in the process of commercialization before the Great Kantō Earthquake. It was also different from the one depicted by Kafū Nagai as escapism. Later, the research of Edo Shumi Kenkyū-kai was taken over by the studies of Edo culture by Engyo Mitamura and other Japanese literature scholars.一部非公開情報あり

Journal

  • 国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History

    国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History 197, 49-104, 2016-02

    国立歴史民俗博物館

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120006461750
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00377607
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • ISSN
    0286-7400
  • NDL Article ID
    027146066
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-2017
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR 
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