室町後期から織田権力期における堺の都市構造の変容 : 自治・支配をめぐって (元禄『堺大絵図』に示された堺の都市構造に関する総合的研究)  [in Japanese] A Change in the Municipal Regime of Sakai from the Late Muromachi Period to the Period of the Ascendancy of Oda Nobunaga : From the Feudal Regime to the Autonomous Regime  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿は、室町後期(一五世紀後期)から織田権力期(一六世紀後期)までを対象として、堺における自治および支配の構造とその変容過程を検討したものである。当該期は中近世移行期として「荘園制から村町制へ」というシェーマが示されているように社会構造が大きく変容する時期である。堺においても堺南北荘の存在や、近世都市の基礎単位になる町共同体の成立が確認されており、これらの総体としての都市構造の変容の追究が必要であった。検討の結果、堺南北荘を枠組みとする荘園制的社会構造から町共同体を基盤とした地縁的自治構造が主体となる社会構造への移行が確認され、その分水嶺は地縁的自治構造が都市全体に展開した一六世紀中期であった。そしてこの時期に、そのような社会構造の変容と連動して支配権力の交代、有力商人層(会合衆)の交代といった大きな変化が生じ、イエズス会宣教師が記した堺の「平和領域性」や自治の象徴とされる環濠の形成は、当該期の地縁的自治構造(都市共同体)の展開が生み出したものであると考えられた。そして、様々な部位で変化を遂げながら形成された一六世紀中期の都市構造が、近世的都市構造として一六世紀後期以降に継承されていくと見通した。This paper examines the feudal and autonomous regimes and their shifts in Sakai from the late Muromachi period (the late 15th century) to the period of the ascendancy of Oda Nobunaga (the late 16th century). This century was a transitional period from medieval to early modern, when the social regime changed drastically, as represented by the shift from the manorial system to the township system. Likewise, in Sakai, it has been observed that after Sakaikita-shō and Sakaiminami-shō (Northern and Southern Sakai Manors) were established, township communities emerged as the basis of the early modern city. Thus, it is important to inquire into the process of changes in the municipal regime to reveal how these basic units were integrated and developed into a new municipal regime.The results of the analysis indicate a shift from a feudal regime based on the manorial system developed under the framework of Sakaikita-shō and Sakaiminami-shō to a society characterized by territorial autonomy based on township. The watershed in this shift was the spread of the autonomous territorial regime around the city in the mid-16th century. This shift in the social regime was accompanied by major changes, such as the change of authorities and the replacement of dominant merchants (egōshū). The development of the autonomous territorial units (town authorities) at that time also seems to have contributed to the construction of moats as a symbol of autonomy as well as the development of Sakai into a "place of peace," as a missionary of the Society of Jesus described it. Moreover, this analysis suggests that the municipal regime which had been established and changed in different ways in the mid-16th century formed the basis of the early modern municipal regime in the late 16th century and thereafter.

Journal

  • 国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History

    国立歴史民俗博物館研究報告 = Bulletin of the National Museum of Japanese History 204, 11-30, 2017-02

    国立歴史民俗博物館

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120006461772
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00377607
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • ISSN
    0286-7400
  • NDL Article ID
    028080469
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-2017
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR 
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