仙台藩の鷹匠に関する基礎的研究  [in Japanese] A Basic Study on Falconers of Sendai Han in Japan  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

藩祖伊達政宗を筆頭に鷹好きの歴代藩主を持つ仙台藩伊達家では、多くの鷹匠たちを下級家臣であるヘ「組士」の1つとして組織化していたが、鷹匠組に関する研究は、史料的制約もあって、ほかの組士の研究と同様に進展していないのが現状である。本稿は、こうした状況に鑑み、同藩の鷹匠組とその支配頭などからなる「御鷹方」の概要を押さえ、鷹匠たちに関する基本的な事項について整理したものである。最初に、鷹匠たちの由緒書から彼らの先祖たちについてまとめ、もともと鷹匠ではなかった「鷹数奇成者」たちや浪人の子どもが仙台藩の鷹匠として召し抱えられた事例を紹介し、近世前期の鷹匠について考察を深めていく。次に、「御鷹方」について、その規模や構成、彼らの身分格式について探り、また、17世紀後半以降に生類憐みの令の影響を受けて仙台藩の鷹匠たちの位置づけが変化していく様子についても明らかにしたい。最後に、藩命によって「鷹事」を「家業」とする家が成立したのは18世紀に入ってからであることを指摘し、幕臣や他藩の家臣から「鷹術」を学ぶ鷹匠たちの姿について紹介するとともに、「鷹事家業」がどのように継承されていくのか、仙台藩の鳥屋頭を世襲した佐藤家を事例に述べていくことにする。

There ware the successive lords of the domain in Sendai Han, who were found of hawks and hawking like the founder Masamune. Sendai Han employed a large number of falconers and organized them as one of Kumishi (a group of lower-ranked vassals), which was called Takajo-gumi. However, there are few historical materials of Kumishi, thus it is difficult to develop academic studies on Takajo-gumi. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to make clear an outline of Otakakata which was composed of Takajo-gumi, their superiors and so on, and to arrange essential points on falconers of Sendai. Firstly, I summarize the history about falconers' ancestors by using Yuisho-gaki (a written document showing the history of a family) of Sendai Han, And I develop an understanding about a falconer until the early modern ages by giving the cases that hawk lovers or a child of a masterless samurai, whose ancestors had not been originally falconers, were newly taken into service of Sendai. Secondly, I investigate Otakakata : the scale, the organization, and the levels of social status. And I also clarify the process how the positioning of falconers in Sendai had been changed since the late 17th century by the influence of Shorui-Awaremi-no-rei (ordinances of animal protection). Finally, I indicate that it was in the 18th century that an occupation as a family business related to hawks or hawking had been established by the order of the domain government. And I add that some falconers who learned Yo-jutsu (skills of hawking or taking care of hawks and so on) from shogunate retainers or feudal retainers of other domains. I also describe how the skills had been inherited by an example of the Sato Family that successively inherited the post of the chief falconer : Toya-Gashira

Journal

  • 鷹・鷹場・環境研究 = The journal of hawks, hawking grounds, and environment studies

    鷹・鷹場・環境研究 = The journal of hawks, hawking grounds, and environment studies 2, 17-37, 2018-03

    九州大学基幹教育院

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120006463516
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA12779253
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • ISSN
    2432-8502
  • NDL Article ID
    029505476
  • NDL Call No.
    Z72-N286
  • Data Source
    NDL  IR 
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