現代インドネシアにおけるイスラーム指導者養成の課題 : 西ジャワのプサントレンの事例から [in Japanese] Trends of Islamic Religious Leader Training in Contemporary Indonesia : A Case Study of Islamic Boarding Schools in West Java [in Japanese]
Access this Article
Search this Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe how the Islamic religious leaders （ulama in Arabic) are trained in contemporary Indonesia and to indicate the trends and problems in the training process. In this paper, the several Islamic boarding schools (pesantren in Indonesian) in West Java are taken up as an example. In Indonesia, National Institutes of Islamic Studies/ Islamic Universities established in 1960s and 1970s have been the important role to produce the graduates who had the liberal/moderate way of thinking while still maintained the Islamic tradition. There are not few alumni who have engaged m education at Islamic boarding school after they graduated from those Islamic Institutes/universities. On the other hand, the traditional Islamic boarding schools run by private sectors have also continued to produce the Islamic religious leaders who charm the public with the charismatic humanity and reputation. From this point, we recognize the important role of the private Islamic boarding school for Islamic religious leader training. In this paper, we discuss about the six Islamic boarding schools in Garut and Tasikmalaya, located in the east area of Bandung, West Java. We conducted the fieldwork in October 2012. In Garut, we selected two Islamic boarding schools in Tarogong and Rancabango,managed by Persis (Persatuan Islam). Persis is well known as Islamic reformist organization and influential in West Java. In spite of having been established under the same organization, these two Islamic boarding schools are contrastive. The Islamic religious leader (ulama) in Tarogong promotes the liberal reform in Islamic education and has the close cooperation with various international organizations and private sector organizations. On the other hand, the Islamic religious leader (ulama) in Rancabango devotes the energies to writing of the Islamic enlightenment books and also performs sermon activities. The Islamic education in Rancabango are maintained the learning tradition of Islamic boarding school. In Tasikmalaya, we also selected two Islamic boarding schools in Sukamana and Sukahideng, located in near central of Tasikmalaya. Sukamana is known as the Islamic boarding school established by Zainal Mustafa. Zainal Mustafa is famous Islamic religious leader(ulama）who caused the rebellion against the Japanese military government. Sukamana is the Islamic boarding school established by Zainal Muhsin, a cousin Zainal. These two Islamic boarding schools are managed under the same foundation, namely Zainal Mustafa Foundation. They have also maintained autonomy and own characteristics, while they cooperate to develop these Islamic boarding schools. Also in Tasikmalaya, we selected two more Islamic boarding schools. One is Fattahiyah Iddrisiyah located in the peripheral part of a town and another one is Miftahul Huda Manonjaya located far from the town. Fattahiyah Iddrisiyah is known as the Islamic boarding school which is belonging to the Islamic mysticism religious group (Tarekat in Indonesia) Sanusiyyah. Although niqab wear for female is not necessarily forced, there are not few female wear niqab. The eye of suspicion tends to be turned to this Islamic boarding school due to its minority mysticism belief and female niqab. On the other hand, Miftahul Huda Manonjaya is known as the Islamic educational system which is focused on Kitab learning (learning traditional religious textbook written by Arabic language). The traditional reproduction of the Islamic religious leaders is maintained by this Islamic boarding school. Although we conducted our research just only in the limited area in West Java, we find the diversity of the Islamic boarding schools. This diversity has led to the vitality of Islamic boarding schools.
- 名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 教育科学
名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科紀要. 教育科学 60(2), 85-104, 2013