Essential Role of Sphingosine Kinase 2 in the Regulation of Cargo Contents in the Exosomes from K562 Cells
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Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive phosphorylated product of sphingosine catalyzed by sphingosine kinase (SphK) and implicated in diverse cellular functions including vesicular trafficking. In the present study we have shown the importance of one of the subtypes of SphK, SphK2, in the regulation of cargo content in exosomes released from human myeloid leukemia K562 cells. First, SphK2 has been shown to localize with N-Rh-PE-positive late endosomes in the cells. Next, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Sphk2 but not SphK1 resulted in a reduction of cargo content in purified exosomes. The involvement of SphK2 in this phenomenon was further investigated by pharmacological approaches. When cells were treated with N,N-dimethylsphingosine (DMS), one of the most frequently used inhibitors for SphK, cargo contents in purified exosomes were enhanced unexpectedly. Finally, it has been shown that DMS has a potency to stimulate SphK2 activity depending on the substrate sphingosine- and the inhibitor-doses as estimated by in vitro assay systems using a purified SphK2. These findings suggest that SphK2/S1P signaling plays an important role in the regulation of cargo content in exosomes in K562 cells.
- The Kobe journal of the medical sciences
The Kobe journal of the medical sciences 63(4), 123-129, 2017