Photodynamic diagnosis of visceral pleural invasion of lung cancer with a combination of 5-aminolevulinic acid and autofluorescence observation systems.
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This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC),BACKGROUND:Visceral pleural invasion (PL) is a prognostic factor in lung cancer. In the lung, lymph flows along the pleura, in addition to the flow toward the pulmonary hilum just as the pulmonary arteries and veins run toward it. Even with the same tumor diameter, a PL1 or higher level of pleural invasion is indicative of a more advanced disease stage. Final diagnosis based on the PL level is made by pathological examination of excised specimens. However, if an intraoperative diagnosis can be established, proper selection of the surgical procedure can be made, and unnecessary surgeries for disseminated lesions can be avoided. We investigated optical diagnostic techniques for identifying the presence or absence of visceral pleural invasion in lung cancer by capitalizing on the phenomenon of 5-amino-levulinic acid (5-ALA) being metabolized to a photosensitizing substance or protoporphyrin IX within malignant tumors, generating red luminescence in response to excitation light.METHOD:This study included 38 patients with primary lung cancer who underwent surgery. They received 5-ALA (20mg/kg) orally 4h before surgery and then we assessed the presence or absence of pleural invasion using an autofluorescence observation system. At visceral pleural invasion sites, we were able to confirm tumor sites visualized in red with a clear border in contrast to the green autofluorescence generated in normal tissues.RESULT:Red luminescence could be confirmed in 100% of PL1-PL3 patients (14/14) and 41.6% of PL0 patients (10/24) with primary lung cancer. PL0 patients in whom visualization was possible were preoperatively diagnosed as having PL1 and many of them showed vascular channel invasion. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this diagnostic technique were 100%, 58.0%, 63.1%, and 100%, respectively. Red fluorescence emission was observed significantly more often in pleural invasion cases.CONCLUSION:Accurate intraoperative diagnosis for visceral pleural invasion in lung cancer may contribute to determining the indications for limited operations such as segmental resection. In addition, accurate local diagnosis has the possibility of being applicable to photodynamic therapy.
- Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy (20), 10-15, 2017-12