漢晋期における「家伝」の流行と先賢 [in Japanese] Family Historical Traditions and Distinguished Ancestors during the Han and Jin Periods [in Japanese]
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In the research to date, the subject of family historical traditions (jiazhuan 家伝) has been conducted from the viewpoint of the social environment encompassing illustrious aristocratic families together with clan genealogies (shipu 氏譜) as popular kinship records during the late Former Han and Western Jin Periods.However, this research has ignored the existence of historical traditions headed with name of clans (moushi jiazhuan 某氏家伝) and those headed with the names of individuals (geren jizhuan 個人家伝). In other words, while both types bear the same name, it seems that their respective functions differed, and the author of the present article goes on to argue that a transition from the former to the latter was taking place over time, a key fact that will enable us to understand more clearly the historical characteristics of jiazhuan compilation.The article begins with the period from the end of the Later Han to the beginning of the three kingdoms in which amidst a chaotic social environment in which the discontinuation of family lineages was a frequently occurring phenomenon and there was a social trend, not only central bureaucratic but in people, of praising (xianxian 先賢) and of enabling their successors to achieve upward social mobility. In other words, what was more important than even family pedigree was kinship relationships to these great forefathers of outstanding deeds. This is the reason behind the popularity of compiling jiazhuan headed with the names of individuals. Furthermore，the selection of a series of xianxian by Emperors Wen and Ming of the Wei Dynasty resulted in a pantheon of famed historical figures recognized as xianxian and accelerated a trend of the jiazhuan compilation.The family jiazhuan was mainly edited in the Western Jin Dynasty, because the object of peerage succession was extended to immediate kinsfolk. They seem to have intended to extend the range of succession by editing the family jiazhuan. Then during the final years of the Western Jin, changes occurred in the jiazhuan genre due to clans losing track of their places of origin; and under the Eastern Jin Dynasty, jiazhuan began to be compiled by such groups as northern aristocratic clans, local powerful families and even families of humble origins (hanmen 寒門).Finally, during the early Song Period, the mechanism of social mobility based on achievements of one's ancestors decreased in importance, which can be interpreted as the virtual end of the original historical function played by jiazhuan.
- 東洋学報 : 東洋文庫和文紀要
東洋学報 : 東洋文庫和文紀要 94(3), 233-266, 2012-12