<原著・翻訳>ヒマラヤ高地、ラダーク地方における大麦食とその変化 --栄養成分と健康効果に着目して-- [in Japanese] <Original Articles>Barley Consumption in Himalayan Highlands: Changes in Grain Intakes, Nutrition, and Health in Ladakh, India [in Japanese]
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This paper focuses on changes in the diets and health of Himalayan highlanders living in Ladakh, India. In this region, where food resources have traditionally been limited by geographic factors, it was thought that lifestyle-related diseases were absent. However, according to research conducted by the "Highlands Civilizations" project at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature in Kyoto, Japan, lifestyle-related diseases have been emerging in recent years as a problem. As a member of this research project, I conducted research on the relationships between changing ways of life, dietary habits, and lifestyle-related diseases in Ladakh and nearby communities in the Himalayas. I found that there were notable differences in the total calorie intake among people living in urban areas, due to individual differences in income, lifestyle, and other factors. This trend was also apparent in farming villages relatively near cities, where modernization and the increased flow of goods have affected residents' ways of life. However, among nomadic communities living on the Changtang Plateau in Ladakh, people continue to follow traditional patterns of eating, which means that there are not large differences in calorie intake among individuals of the same age group. In particular, there has been a striking shift in the staple food eaten by highlanders in cities and farming villages, as seen in a decrease in barley consumption and an increase in white rice consumption. These changes in diet and lifestyle have also had a noticeable impact on health. Meanwhile, in Western countries, barley has received more attention in recent years from researchers, as the health effects of this grain have become more widely known. Barley is said to have a high amount of dietary fiber and a relatively low glycemic index compared to other grains, such as rice and wheat. In particular, studies have shown that the water-soluble fiber contained in barley, which is high in β-glucan, can help to control and maintain healthy levels of cholesterol, blood sugar, and blood pressure. In the United States and Europe, it has now become trendy among health-conscious consumers to eat barley. Despite this barley "boom" in so-called developed countries, the opposite trend is occurring among villages that have traditionally eaten barley as a staple food. In Ladakh, the popularity of "tsampa, " a roasted barley flour, seems to be decreasing, although it remains one of the most important foods for Himalayan highlanders. In this article, I first summarize and review recent trends in the literature on barley, focusing on its nutritional value as well as its effects on health, from a nutritional science perspective. Next, I analyze data on the nutritional intake from barley and other grains, which is based on a research study conducted in Domkhar village in Ladakh, an area that is known for the cultivation of barley. Finally, I consider the reality of dietary changes in Domkhar village, drawing on quantitative data from recent years that tracks changes in nutritional intakes from grains, as well as interviews with the villagers on the broader political, economic, and historical context.
- ヒマラヤ学誌 : Himalayan Study Monographs
ヒマラヤ学誌 : Himalayan Study Monographs (19), 60-72, 2018-03-28
京都大学ヒマラヤ研究会; 京都大学霊長類学・ワイルドライフサイエンス・リーディング大学院; 京都大学ヒマラヤ研究ユニット