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ObjectivesTo investigate childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and its role in daytime sleepiness among school-age children.MethodsA questionnaire survey was conducted with 25,211 children aged 6–15 (mean, 10.39) years attending 148 elementary and 71 middle schools in 10 prefectures across Japan and their parents. Questions concerned 4 sleep habit items (bedtime, sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, wake-up time) and 4 sleep disorder items (loud snoring, snorts/gasps, breathing pauses, seems very sleepy in the daytime). Total sleep time (TST) was calculated with sleep habits. Severe possible OSAS (p-OSAS) was defined as having loud snoring, snorts and gasps, or breathing pauses "frequently" (≥ 5 times per week), and mild p-OSAS was rated as having any of these "sometimes" (2–4 times per week). Severe daytime sleepiness was defined as seeming very sleepy "frequently" and mild daytime sleepiness as seeming very sleepy "sometimes".ResultsMean prevalence of mild to severe p-OSAS and severe p-OSAS in children across all grade levels was 9.5% and 1.6%, respectively. p-OSAS was particularly prevalent in children at lower elementary levels, decreasing with advancing grade levels. Prevalence of mild and severe daytime sleepiness was 6.1% and 0.9%, respectively, among all children (7.0%). Prevalence of daytime sleepiness increased with advancing grade levels, particularly in middle-school level. Average TST was 8.4 ± 2.2 h in both elementary and middle-school levels, and decreased as grades advanced, particularly in middle-school levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that middle-school level, TST < 8 h, and p-OSAS were independent factors for daytime sleepiness. Strong correlations were found between severe daytime sleepiness and severe p-OSAS or TST < 6 h, and between daytime sleepiness and loud snoring or breathing pauses.Conclusionp-OSAS may be an independent factor influencing daytime sleepiness in school-age children. Loud snoring and breathing pauses could be clinical markers for children with severe daytime sleepiness.



    PLOS ONE 13(10), e0204409, 2018-10

    Public Library of Science


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