Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Hamstring Tendons Restores Quantitative Pivot Shift
Background: It is still uncertain how surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is able to restore rotatory laxity of the involved joint. The desired amount of restraint applied by the ACL graft, as compared with the healthy knee, has not been fully clarified. Purpose: To quantify the ability of single-bundle anatomic ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons in reducing the pivot-shift phenomenon immediately after surgery under anesthesia. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: An inertial sensor and image analysis were used at 4 international centers to measure tibial acceleration and lateral compartment translation of the knee, respectively. The standardized pivot-shift test was quantified in terms of the side-to-side difference in laxity both preoperatively and postoperatively with the patient under anesthesia. The reduction in both tibial acceleration and lateral compartment translation after surgery and the side-to-side difference were evaluated using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Alpha was set at P < .05. Results: A total of 107 patients were recruited for the study, and data were available for 89 patients. There was a statistically significant reduction in quantitative rotatory knee laxity between preoperatively (inertial sensor, 2.55 ± 4.00 m/s(2); image analysis, 2.04 ± 2.02 mm) and postoperatively (inertial sensor, -0.54 ± 1.25 m/s(2); image analysis, -0.10 ± 1.04 mm) between the involved and healthy joints, as measured by the 2 devices (P < .001 for both). Postoperatively, both devices detected a lower rotatory laxity value in the involved joint compared with the healthy joint (inertial sensor, 2.45 ± 0.89 vs 2.99 ± 1.10 m/s(2), respectively [P < .001]; image analysis, 0.99 ± 0.83 vs 1.09 ± 0.92 mm, respectively [P = .38]). Conclusion: The data from this study indicated a significant reduction in the pivot shift when compared side to side. Both the inertial sensor and image analysis used for the quantitative assessment of the pivot-shift test could successfully detect restoration of the pivot shift after anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Future research will examine how pivot-shift control is maintained over time and correlation of the pivot shift with return to full activity in patients with an ACL injury.
- Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine 6(12), 2325967118812364, 2018-12-01