十世紀の画師たち―東アジア絵画史から見た「和様化」の諸相― [in Japanese] Tenth-century Japanese Painters –Various Aspects of Wayô-ka (Shift to Japanese Aesthetics) as Seen from East Asian Painting History [in Japanese]
Access this Article
Mi Fu (1051-1107), active at the end of China's Northern Song dynasty, wrote about Japanese full-color landscape paintings in his Hua Shi. He stated that in the latter half of the 10th century, specifically in the Southern Tang dynasty (937-976, also known as Jiangnan), these works were being compared to those of Li Sixun (651-716) of the Early Tang. Which specific phenomenon in mid-Heian period Japanese painting history is this comment referring to? This article explores the stylistic development of Japanese painting in the 10th century, a time when Japanese full-color landscapes were being brought to the Southern Tang, and provides an overview of the issue primarily through the use of historical documents related to the painters of that period. From the latter half of the 9th through the 10th centuries, Japanese paintings gradually distanced themselves from the Tang, developing their own distinctive style in this historically important period of Japanese painting in a phenomenon that has traditionally been termed wayô-ka, or the shift to Japanese style. And yet, today with the exception of the murals on the first floor of the Five-Storied Pagoda at Daigoji that date to 951 (Tenryaku 5), there are no other known works that clearly date to this period. Conversely, the Kokon chomonjû of the 13th century Kamakura period states that prior to Kose no Kintada, active around the middle of the 10th century, the paintings created "looked like living things," and that after his younger brother Kinmochi, the style changed to that then current. This suggests that a major change occurred in painting style during that period based on the comments in Hua Shi. Unfortunately there are no works extant today that convey the aspects of this change. Thus it is necessary to use painting examples from around the 10th century and historical documents of the period to elucidate these aspects. This article uses historical documents focused on these painters to examine this issue. In other words, following the shift in the valuation of painters, we can experiment with reconstructing the stylistic shifts that occurred during this period. In this shift it appears that at one point the viewpoint that saw Japanese paintings as uniquely Japanese was abandoned in the evaluation of these painters. In China at the time, they established all manner of critiques in painting histories and painting theories centered on paintings and painters. How the painters and paintings seen in these books were evaluated can be surmised to have heavily influenced the evaluation of painters and paintings in Japan. For example, the comment in the Kokon chomonjû stating that the depicted works look like living things, undoubtedly reflects on the evaluation of Wu Daozi stated in the Late Tang Tangchao minghua lu or the Lidai minghuaj ji. Then I would like to use extant works to give a detailed image of the 10th century Japanese color landscape works compared to the early 8th century works of Li Sixun as discussed in the Hua Shi. The paintings I discuss are the Wintry Groves and Layered Banks (Kurokawa Institute of Ancient Cultures), by Dong Yuan, who studied the Li Sixun style of full color landscape painting, and two Japanese paintings, namely the 13th century Landscape Screens at Jingoji and the 12th century Tale of Genji Handscrolls at the Tokugawa Art Museum. Then with the artist name Li Sixun as keyword; working back from these examples, we can clarify the stylistic relationship between the landscape paintings of the two countries during that period. Further, this type of painting phenomenon shares the attitude of shedding the style of Wu Daozi, who led Chinese painting styles from the High Tang, as indicated by works and historical documents remaining from both China and Japan at the time. In other words, this article indicates first that the change in evaluation of painters in Japan corresponded to the changes in painter evaluation in China at the time. Then regarding the details of the stylistic shift of the 10th century, we can clearly surmise its details from the extant works from that brief period. Second, the state of movement between Japan and China of works born from those stylistic changes, can be seen through the movements of Japanese priests visiting Song China, and the reception of works by the Fujiwara family regents and their circle. Further, I would like to indicate that the painting views of the people related to the Fujiwara family who evaluated the painters of the day were related to the painting evaluation methods of the Five Dynasties through Northern Song dynasty. The "shift to Japanese style" premise that it was only objects that were brought to Japan is false, rather, both the images of painters and their evaluation standards were also brought to Japan at the same time. Through the investigations in this article I would like to reposition the painting style change known as "a shift to Japanese style" that occurred in the 10th century in Japan to a position amidst the broader flow of East Asian painting history.
- 美術研究 = The bijutsu kenkiu : the journal of art studies
美術研究 = The bijutsu kenkiu : the journal of art studies (420), 1-30, 2016-12-19