Impaired airway mucociliary function reduces antigen-specific IgA immune response to immunization with a claudin-4-targeting nasal vaccine in mice
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Vaccine delivery is an essential element for the development of mucosal vaccine, but it remains to be investigated how physical barriers such as mucus and cilia affect vaccine delivery efficacy. Previously, we reported that C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) targeted claudin-4, which is expressed by the epithelium associated with nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and could be effective as a nasal vaccine delivery. Mice lacking tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family, member 1 (Ttll1-KO mice) showed mucus accumulation in nasal cavity due to the impaired motility of respiratory cilia. Ttll1-KO mice nasally immunized with C-CPE fused to pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA-C-CPE) showed reduced PspA-specific nasal IgA responses, impaired germinal center formation, and decreased germinal center B-cells and follicular helper T cells in the NALT. Although there was no change in the expression of claudin-4 in the NALT epithelium in Ttll1-KO mice, the epithelium was covered by a dense mucus that prevented the binding of PspA-C-CPE to NALT. However, administration of expectorant N-acetylcysteine removed the mucus and rescued the PspA-specific nasal IgA response. These results show that the accumulation of mucus caused by impaired respiratory cilia function is an interfering factor in the C-CPE-based claudin-4-targeting nasal vaccine.
- Scientific Reports
Scientific Reports (8), 2018-02-13