Enhancing endogenous adenosine A2A receptor signaling induces slow-wave sleep without affecting body temperature and cardiovascular function
Access this Article
Search this Article
Insomnia is one of the most common sleep problems with an estimated prevalence of 10%–15% in the general population. Although adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonists strongly induce sleep, their cardiovascular effects preclude their use in treating sleep disorders. Enhancing endogenous A2AR signaling, however, may be an alternative strategy for treating insomnia, because adenosine levels in the brain accumulate during wakefulness. In the present study, we found that 3,4-difluoro-2-((2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino)benzoic acid, denoted A2AR positive allosteric modulator (PAM)-1, enhanced adenosine signaling at the A2AR and induced slow wave sleep (SWS) without affecting body temperature in wild-type male mice after intraperitoneal administration, whereas the SWS-inducing effect of this benzoic acid derivative was abolished in A2AR KO mice. In contrast to the A2AR agonist CGS 21680, the A2AR PAM-1 did not affect blood pressure or heart rate. These findings indicate that enhancing A2AR signaling promotes SWS without cardiovascular effects. Therefore, small molecules that allosterically modulate A2ARs could help people with insomnia to fall asleep.
Neuropharmacology (144), 122-132, 2019-01