ミャンマーKachin州およびChin州における植物遺伝資源の探索収集現地研究,2017年 A Field Study Exploring Plant Genetic Resources in Kachin State and Chin State, Myanmar in 2017

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Abstract

本報告は,2017年11月にミャンマーのカチン北部およびチン州南部で日本とミャンマーが共同で実施した植物遺伝資源に関するフィールド研究の報告である.本フィールド研究は隣接するザガイン地方域における先行研究による知見に基づいて,作物の多様性が期待されるが探索があまりなされていない上記の地域を対象に計画,実行された.4つの目的があった.第一に,カチン州のプタオ県(district)の村や市場を訪れ,栽培された有用植物を調査する.私たちは標高370 ~ 530 mの広い盆地と周辺の丘陵部を訪れ,主要な作物は盆地のイネであるが,畑,バックヤードガーデン,地元の市場などでさまざまなマメ類,穀類,スパイス,ハーブ,薬草や野菜を確認した.第二に,私たちはチン州南部のミンダッ県及びその近傍の900 ~ 1,540 mのより高い標高の村々をさらに高い峠を越えながら訪問し調査することを計画した.イネはここでも重要な作物であったが,その栽培は灌漑用水が利用できる谷または小さな盆地のテラスに限られていた.プタオ県と同様に様々な作物が農家の近くの小さな傾斜畑に栽培されていた.近年,新しい換金作物であるコンニャク等の栽培がチン州に導入されアワやシコクビエなど伝統的作物が失われているようある.第三の目的は農業食糧遺伝資源を収集することであった.ミャンマーのカチン州プタオ県で147点,チン州ミンダッ地区で89点,近接するマグエ地方域で8点,ヤンゴン地方域で1点の計245点を収集した.それにはマメ科植物(46点),穀類(75点),スパイス・ハーブ・薬草(28点),野菜(92点),その他(4点)が含まれていた.四番目の目的は,民族植物学的視点から,作物や有用植物の方名(現地語での呼称)と利用方法を収集することであった.作物の名前に関しては,カチン州プタオ県のシャン人,ラワン人,ジンポー人,リス人は異なる村でもそれぞれの言語内では共通性のある作物名を使用する.彼らは地区内で互いに近くに住んでいるにもかかわらず,様々な栽培作物の呼称は独自の方名を維持している.一方,チン人は,チン州のミンダッ地区の調査で各作物について村ごとにある程度異なる呼称を使用している.本研究の結果,私たちはカチン州プタオ県とチン州ミンダット県に多様な栽培植物や有用植物を観察し,それらをミャンマーの農業研究局のシードバンクとわが国の農業生物資源ジーンバンクに保存される植物遺伝資源として収集した.近年チン州の山岳地帯にコンニャクやコーヒーノキなどの換金作物の導入を確認した.これによって伝統的に栽培されていたアワやシコクビエのような伝統作物が失われた可能性がある.カチン州とチン州の地元住民が利用している野生ないしは半栽培のウリ科植物やナス科植物は,専門家による正確な分類学的同定や多様性分析などさらに研究が必要である.プタオ県やミンダッ県のようなミャンマー周縁部の丘陵・山間地域の農業を発展させるためには,現金作物の導入だけでなく,伝統的な栽培された有用植物の活用の検討も重要と思われる.

Here, we report a Myanmar-Japan cooperative field study exploring plant genetic resources (PGRs) mainly in northern Kachin State and southern Chin State, Myanmar in November 2017. The field study was conducted in the above-mentioned areas where small exploration missions were dispatched, even though crop diversity was expected. Crop diversity has previously been observed in hilly and mountainous areas in Sagaing Region, which border Kachin State and Chin State. There were four objectives of this field study. First, we planned to survey cultivated and useful plants by visiting villages and marketplaces in Putao district of Kachin State. We visited a large basin and the surrounding hills at altitudes of 370 ? 530 m. The major crop in the basin was rice and various legumes, cereals, spices, herbs, medicinal plants, and vegetables were grown in cultivated fields, backyard garden, and in local marketplaces. Second, we intended to visit local villages at higher altitudes of 900 ? 1,540 m crossing higher passes in Mindat district of the southern Chin State and vicinity for survey. Although rice was also an important crop in those regions, its cultivation was limited to terraces in the valleys or small basins where irrigation water was available. There were small sloping cultivation fields near farmers' houses where various crops were grown, as observed in Putao district. Cultivation of elephant foot yam was recently introduced as a cash crop, which might have led to the loss of traditionally grown crops, such as foxtail millet and finger millet. The third objective was to collect PGRs for food and agriculture. We collected 245 plant samples in Putao district of Kachin State (147 samples), Mindat district of Chin State (89) and neighboring Magway Region (8), and Yangon Region (1) of Myanmar, which included legumes (46), cereals (75), spices, herbs and medicinal plants (28), various vegetables (92), and others (4). The fourth objective was to collect the vernacular names and confirm the utilization methods of the crops and useful plants from an ethnobotanical perspective. Shan, Rawang, Jinghpaw, and Lisu people often used similar crop names within their respective languages in Putao district of Kachin State. Although they live close to other people in the district, they have maintained their own vernacular names for a variety of cultivated crops. Conversely, Chin people use various words for each crop among villages in Mindat district of Chin State. Consequently, we observed a diversity of cultivated and useful plants in Putao district of Kachin State and Mindat district of Chin State. These were collected as potential PGRs to be conserved at DAR Seed Bank in Myanmar and at the Genetic Resources Center (GRC) of the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), which implements the NARO Genebank Project (NARO GBP) in Japan. We observed the recent introduction of some cash crops, such as elephant foot yam and coffee trees, into the mountainous areas of Chin State, which might have led to the loss of traditionally grown crops, such as foxtail millet and finger millet. Further studies are needed on several wild and/or semi-domesticated Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae plants used by local people both in Kachin State and Chin State for accurate taxonomic identification and analysis of diversity. It is important to consider introducing cash crops and the possible utilization of traditional cultivated and useful plants in order to develop agriculture in hilly and mountainous peripheral areas of Myanmar such as Putao and Mindat districts.

Journal

  • (34), 159-192, 2019-03

    National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    120006586317
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • ISSN
    2434-7485
  • Data Source
    IR 
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