中世鹿児島の港と戦国城下町の形成 [in Japanese] The Location of Medieval Ports in Kagoshima Castle Town [in Japanese]
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Studies of medieval castle towns have been conducted in various disciplines. These viewed castle towns as being constituted of many elements such as castles, shrines, and temples, and noted that the spatial structure of castle towns differed depending on the region in which they were located. Historical geographers have pointed out that the diversity was influenced by the existing spatial structures, for example landforms, highways and the distribution of elements of the infrastructure. Along those lines, scholars have now begun to pay attention to existing ports. There have been several interdisciplinary studies of the relationship between ports and castle towns in the Hokuriku region, which faces the Sea of Japan. However, the results of these studies cannot be generalized because they are peculiar to the Hokuriku region. This paper therefore aims to show the process of the transformation of the relationship between ports and castle towns in Kagoshima, which faces the East China Sea. The Shimazuserved as powerful provincial constables in Kagoshima throughout medieval times, and documents show that medieval ports existed in Kagoshima during the period. Moreover, Kagoshima can provide evidence of a new type of the relationship between foreign-trade ports and castle towns because the Shimazu were involved in the trade with the Ming Dynasty, Ryūkyū and Europe. This paper first estimates the coastline in medieval times and the location of ports. Next, the paper analyzes the distribution of institutions and facilities such as temples, shrines, highways and roads in three periods: the Tōfukuji-castle period (1341-1387), the Shimizu-castle period (1387-1550), and the Uchi-castle period (1550-1601). The section devoted to the Uchi- castle period shows in particular the developmental process of certain residential areas by focusing on the direction and pattern of roads and allotments. The findings of this paper are summarized as follows. It turns out that there were two medieval ports: Tobashira port and another port at the mouth of the Nameri river. The former continued to develop throughout medieval times because many temples and shrines were located near the port in every period. In the Tōfukuji-castle period, the Shimazu were based in the castle by the port, but they seem to have used it only temporarily as a military port. The Shimazu distributed their facilities far from the port during the Shimizu-castle period. However, in the Uchi-castle period, the castle of the Shimazu was moved nearer the coast, and they built residential areas between the castle and the existing port town. It can be said that the Shimazu managed to incorporate the port within their castle town. In the case of the Hokuriku region, warriors built their castles near existing port towns, as was the case in Kagoshima, but medieval port towns in the Hokuriku region were much larger than those in Kagoshima. The foreign-trade port of the Shimazu was situated without regard to the transformation process of the castle town. In the Shimizu-castle period, the Zen temple Fukushōji, which was involved in the foreign trading of the Shimazu, was linked to Tobashira port through the Abeki river, although it was also quite distant from the port. This fact indicates that the Shimazu used Tobashira port through Fukushōji. However, by the end of the 15th century, other Zen temples such as Kejuin-Tōinji and Kōkokuji were located near the port at the mouth of Nameri river. Therefore, the Shimazu seem to have established a new foreign-trade port there. The reason for this relocation is that sedimentation made it difficult to use Tobashira port. In the Uchi-castle period, the Shimazubu ilt Nanrinji, another Zen temple, and probably moved their port again to the mouth of the Kōtsuki river, which was larger than both the Abeki and Nameri rivers. However, the existing ports probably continued to operate even though they were not used for foreign trade because most Zen temples remained in place. In other words, the Shimazuseem to have selected the topographical condition that made it easier for ships to operate in their foreign-trade port, controlling some ports indirectly through the network of Zen temples.
- 史林 = The Journal of history
史林 = The Journal of history 101(5), 825-845, 2018-09