Impact of Urban Surface Characteristics and Socio-Economic Variables on the Spatial Variation of Land Surface Temperature in Lagos City, Nigeria
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The urban heat island (UHI) and its consequences have become a key research focus of various disciplines because of its negative externalities on urban ecology and the total livability of cities. Identifying spatial variation of the land surface temperature (LST) provides a clear picture to understand the UHI phenomenon, and it will help to introduce appropriate mitigation technique to address the advanced impact of UHI. Hence, the aim of the research is to examine the spatial variation of LST concerning the UHI phenomenon in rapidly urbanizing Lagos City. Four variables were examined to identify the impact of urban surface characteristics and socio-economic activities on LST. The gradient analysis was employed to assess the distribution outline of LST from the city center point to rural areas over the vegetation and built-up areas. Partial least square (PLS) regression analysis was used to assess the correlation and statistically significance of the variables. Landsat data captured in 2002 and 2013 were used as primary data sources and other gridded data, such as PD and FFCOE, were employed. The results of the analyses show that the distribution pattern of the LST in 2002 and 2013 has changed over the study period as results of changing urban surface characteristics (USC) and the influence of socio-economic activities. LST has a strong positive relationship with NDBI and a strong negative relationship with NDVI. The rapid development of Lagos City has been directly affected by conversion more green areas to build up areas over the time, and it has resulted in formulating more surface urban heat island (SUHI). Further, the increasing population and their socio-economic activities including industrialization and infrastructure development have also caused a significant impact on LST changes. We recommend that the results of this research be used as a proxy tool to introduce appropriate landscape and town planning in a sustainable viewpoint to make healthier and livable urban environments in Lagos City, Nigeria.
Sustainability 11(1), 25, 2018-12