現代インドにおける都市下層カーストの就労・生活状況─デリー市の清掃カースト世帯調査に基づく一考察─ [in Japanese]
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This paper explores the current socio-economic marginalization of the untouchables in a case study of the sweeper community （known by the caste name of Balmiki） in India through a household survey conducted between 2006 and 2009 by the author. The caste-based occupation of the Balmiki community ─ sweeping of certain streets or households and removing night soil from latrines ─ has been one aspect of India' s traditional caste system. The caste system is a form of social stratification wherein social inequality is structured and accorded legitimacy by the privileged sections of society. Sweepers have been known as one of the lowest communities, even when compared with other untouchables; moreover, they have been excluded from society in various socio-economic domains. However, their jobs are essential for the maintenance of the social environment, especially in urban areas. This paper is organized around discussion of two significant issues. The first relates to the current status of the Balmiki community in terms of worship, education, family formation, and migration, and provides a basic overview of the life of this lower caste community in Delhi. The second issue concerns their traditional occupation and marriage practices （endogamy）. To what extent are the Balmikis still involved in the job of sweeping? Are we looking at the end of caste-based social relations or not? The results of the author' s survey offer far more concrete insights into the situation than the Census data does. An examination of a certain caste community at the grass roots level is also important for understanding the dynamic aspects of Indian society in a period of globalization.
中央大学政策文化総合研究所年報 (17), 175-196, 2014-08-26